ЕКЗИСТЕНЦІЙНО-ПСИХОЛОГІЧНІ ОСНОВИ ПОРУШЕННЯ СТАТЕВОЇ ІДЕНТИЧНОСТІ ПІДЛІТКІВ
Батьківський, громадянський рух в Україні закликає МОН зупинити тотальну сексуалізацію дітей і підлітків
Відкрите звернення Міністру освіти й науки України - Гриневич Лілії Михайлівні
Представництво українського жіноцтва в ООН: низький рівень культури спілкування в соціальних мережах
Гендерна антидискримінаційна експертиза може зробити нас моральними рабами
ЛІВИЙ МАРКСИЗМ У НОВИХ ПІДРУЧНИКАХ ДЛЯ ШКОЛЯРІВ
ВІДКРИТА ЗАЯВА на підтримку позиції Ганни Турчинової та права кожної людини на свободу думки, світогляду та вираження поглядів
Lecture 12. Evolution of the ME Lexical System.
1. Evolution of the ME semantics.
2. Semantic changes in ME.
Evolution of the ME semantics
Semantics is the study of meaning: namely, the historical and psychological study of meaning, the study of the classification of changes in the signification of words.
These changes can be viewed as important factors in linguistic development and include such phenomena as:
specialization and expansion of meaning
meliorative and pejorative tendencies.
OE semantics underwent deep and profound changes as the history of semantics is connected with the history of the words.
Semantic changes in ME
There are various theories concerning the semantic changes and their nomenclature. E.g. B.Warren proposed a classification of semantic changes into:
- particularization (уточнение)
- implication (импликация)
According to traditional classification the semantic changes in OE and ME are usually divided into shifts: expansion (widening – расширение, генерализация), specialization (narrowing – сужение, специализация) of meaning, pejoration (пейорация - ухудшение), mejoration (амелиорация - улучшение), methaphoric and metonymic shifts. Lapshina adds смещение (shift).
1. The examples of narrowing are found in the history of
OE dēor animal which changed into deer,
OE mete food > NE meat,
OE sellan give, sell > NE sell,
OE mōtan may, must > NE must,
OE talu number, story > NE tale,
OE loc fastening, prison > NE lock,
ME accident event > NE accident
ME client one who is under the protection of another, a dependant > NE a customer
ME engineer one who designs or invests > NE one who designs and constructs military engines or works of public utility
Narrowing of meaning can often be observed in groups of synonyms: in the course of time each synonym acquires its own, more specialised, narrow sphere of application: e.g.
deer was a synonym of animal and beest in ME, must – may, lock – prison
14th c. nature: inherent force directing the world, or the human race > the physical world
2. Widening of meaning can be illustrated by
journey which meant a day’ work or a day’s journey,
holiday – was formerly a religious festival (the first component comes from OE hālig holy)
dog ME dog of a particular breed > NE any dog
rubbish ME broken stones and building material, fragments of plaster > NE anything useless or worthless
3. Many words of concrete meaning came to be used figuratively, which is the example of widening of meaning and of metaphoric change. Thus the verbs
grasp, drive, go, start, handle, stop etc. formerly denoted physical actions but then have acquired a more general, non-concrete meaning through metaphoric use. The change of
ME vixen she-fox to bad-tempered, quarrelsome woman can be interpreted as metaphor or metonymy.
4. A well-known example of metonymic change is
pen which meant a goose quill (feather) used in writing
MnE: any of various instruments used for writing or drawing with ink
Gang meant a set of tools > a group of workmen, people; the meaning of caravan was transferred from a company of travellers into wagon.
5. Shift (смещение). Meliorative and pejorative tendencies. The meaning of the word can be shifted and evaluated, thus - meliorated or pejorated: e.g.
professor – any person wearing glasses
blackguard a servant > one of the criminal class
boss employer, master > anyone thought to be the most wonderful, exciting
cobbler one who mends shoes > a clumsy workman
daddy father > the most respected performer in a field
Greek a native of Greece > a swindler, rogue
butcher one whose trade is to slaughter large tame animals for food > a man of blood, a brutal murderer
dog, lion, wolf, ape, swine
6. Some semantic changes are miscellaneous because they involve different kinds of semantic changes and sometimes structural changes too (e.g. the simplification or contraction of compounds and word phrases).
lord: OE hlāford = hlāf loaf + weard keeper. This compound word was simplified and shortened to NE lord.
lady: OE hlæfdige = hlāf + dige knead (bread-kneading), later simplified to NE lady.
daisy: OE dæges-ēage (eye of the day)
window: OE windoge < OIcel wind-auga (eye for the wind)
alone: OE all one
always: OE ealne weg (all the way)
good-bye: OE God be with you, an old form of farewell