Subjunctive-Mood Forms


Passive Forms


Perfect Forms


Future-Tense Forms

Analytical Forms


In OEthere were no analytical forms. They appeared later:

ME Future Tense, Perfect, Passive and Subjunctive forms;

NE Continuous and Do-forms;

and had the following characteristics:

They consisted of 2 elements:

- a verb of broad semantics and high frequency (an auxiliary);

- a non-finite form (Infinitive, Participle 1, 2).

In OEthere was no Future Tense. Future actions were expressed by Present-Tense forms and modal phrases with sculan (shall), willan (will), maζan (may), cunnan (can), etc.

sculan/willan + Infinitive

Willan had more strong modal meaning (volition) that was later weakened and almost lost.

2. 13th 14th c. these forms were very common and sculan (shall) and willan (will) were completely interchangeable.

3. 17th c. John Wallis introduced the rule shall 1st person, will 2nd and 3rd person.

4.In ModE there is a tendency to use will + 1st, 2nd and 3rd person without any distinction (earlier will + 1st person had the modal meaning of volition).

habban/bēon + Participle 2

↓ ↓

with transitive with intransitive (this distinction is still left in German)

verbs verbs

2.In MEand NEonly the auxiliary habban was left while bēon ceased to be used in the Perfect forms not to confuse them with the Passive forms (though some of these forms are still left, e.g. He is gone).

bēon/werthen + Participle 2

2.Werthen died out in late ME.

3.Passive constructions were often marked with prepositions by/with (to show the doer of the action or the instrument of the action).

1.These forms were not always analytical in OE but were widely used in:

independent clauses to express wish, command, hypothetical condition, concession, purpose (e.g. Sīēn hira ēāζan āþistrode. Be their eyes darkened!);

dependent clauses temporal clauses (related to future) (e.g. Bring me þæt ic ēte. Bring me that, I would eat), etc.;

impersonal sentences (e.g. Methinks I think ( ), me lycige I like ( )) went out of use in NE.

2.In MEand NEanalytical forms of the Subjunctive Mood appeared.


biden (bid)/leten (let)/neden (need)/sholde (should)/wolde (would) + Infinitive

These were the modal phrases that were used to express problematic or imaginary actions. The forms with sholde/wolde outnumbered all other forms, soon they weakened their modal meaning and became auxiliaries: should 1st person, would 2nd, 3rd person.

3. Meaning of the Subjunctive forms:

in the Past present or future imaginary or unreal actions (e.g. He thought he would cope with the task);

in the Present future probable or problematic actions (e.g. She thinks he would still come).

4. Peculiarities:

should/would + Infinitive à simultaneous actions (e.g. If I was young I would be the happiest person in the world);

should/would + Perfect Infinitive à past or preceding actions (e.g. If I had known all this I would have left that house immediately).


  1. Basic qualities of the perfect forms
  2. Ex. 7. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the forms of the Gerund.
  3. Forms of action
  4. Free and Bound Use of Grammar Forms
  5. IV Analyze verb-forms and translate the following sentences. Match the verb-forms with their tenses in Active or Passive Voice.
  6. UNIT 2. Various Forms of Art

: 321

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