Key dates in science

c.235 BCArchimedes, a Greek scientist, invented the Archimedes screw, which could move water upwards. It was used for bailing out water from flooded ships and in irrigation systems.

c.10 BCThe Roman architect Vitruvius described a crane.

c. 200The earlier known use was made of cast iron to make a Chinese cooking stove.

c. 635Quill pens were used for writing.

c. 700The Catalan forge was used in Spain for smelting iron. It was an early version of the modern blast furnace.

c. 950Gunpowder was used by the Chinese to make fireworks and signals.




Grammar. Indefinite

Text 4A.The Internet.

Text 4B. Programming Languages

Topic.Leisure Time

³ 䳺 to tell Indefinite Passive

To be + P II (III 䳺)
Present Past Future
I am told   He She is told It   We You are told They I was told   He She was told It   We You were told They I   He She It will be told   We You They


Exercise 1. Open the brackets using the infinitives in Present, Past or Future Indefinite Passive.

1. My question (to answer) yesterday. 2. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of London. 3. His new book (to finish) next year. 4. Flowers (to sell) in shops and in the streets. 5. Bread (to eat) every day. 6. The letter (to receive) yesterday. 7. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday. 8. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday. 9. Many houses (to build) in our town every year. 10. This work (to do) tomorrow. 11. This text (to translate) at the last lesson. 12. These trees (to plant) last autumn. 13. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow. 14. We (to invite) to a concert last Saturday. 15. Lost time never (to find) again. 16. Rome (not to build) in a day.

Exercise 2. Use underlined verbs in the Passive Voice. Make all necessary changes in the sentences.

1. It took her a long time to write the composition, but at last she wrote it. 2. Dont put the cup there: somebody will break it. 3. Why werent you at the birthday party? They didnt invite me. 4. We met many difficulties, but all the same we finished the work in time. 5. We will leave you behind if you are not quick. 6. I spent all my money on books last month. 7. I dont think we will do all this work today: there is too much of it. 8. It is a very funny thing that when I start doing this, somebody always stops me. 9. Dont leave these sweets on the table: somebody will eat them. 10. The elephant broke the branch of the tree. 11. The bees attacked the bear when it tried to take their honey.

Exercise 3. Change the sentences into the Active Voice.

1. My pen was taken by somebody. 2. He was exhausted by his hard work. 3. I was promised a new computer by my parents. 4. I am sure I will be asked by police about this accident. 5. The leading role will be performed by my favourite actress. 6. His decisions are always approved by her. 7. Our cafe is visited by a lot of people. 8. The agreement will be reached by them tomorrow. 9. The garage is cleaned by him twice a week. 10.The way I dress is always criticized by her.

Exercise 4. Translate into English using the verbs in the Passive Voice.

1. . 2. ? 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. ? 9. , , , . 10. . 11. ? , .


  1. History of language as a science.
  2. Key dates in science
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