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History of language as a science.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents.2

Foreword...3

充4

ʳ充..5

Part 1. Lectures.

Section 1. History of language as a science.6

Test on Section 116

Section 2. Germanic languages...24

Test on Section 235

Section 3. Old English42

Test on Section 355

Section 4. Old English Grammar63

Test on Section 475

Section 5. Middle English..82

Test on Section 5....94

Section 6. Early New English. Middle English and Early New English Grammar.101

Test on Section 6..119

Part 2. Seminars.

Seminar 1. History of language as a science. Germanic languages127

Seminar 2. Old English Historical Background. Alphabet and Pronunciation132

Seminar 3. Old English Grammar134

Seminar 4. Middle English historical background. Borrowings. Innovations in spelling.

Sound changes135

Seminar 5. Early New English. Historical background. Vocabulary and phonetic

changes....................................................................................... ......................136

Seminar 6. Middle English and early New English grammar..137

Part 3. Summary.

1. . ҳ ә .....................139

2. . ..................................................................140

3. . . ұғғ . ......141

4. . ұғғ ..............142

5. . . ғ

ң. ң ң ...............................................................143

6. .

. ң ғ ә. ғ ә ң

ғ .144

Bibliography.145

Some useful websites and books for further reading146

Part One.

Section 1.

History of language as a science.

1. The aim of the study of the subject. Synchronic and diachronic approaches in studying linguistic facts.

2. Inner and outer history of the language. Rate and causes of language evolution.

3. A short survey of periods in the history of English.

1. Any language is a historical phenomenon. It changes throughout the history at all its levels: phonetics, grammar and vocabulary. Being influenced by different events in the history of the nation every language undergoes gradual changes and that makes some facts of todays language incomprehensible from the point of view of modern linguistics. Such phenomena can be traced out at all language levels:

 

in the sphere of phonetics: a) spelling and pronunciation in most cases do not coincide (the words knight, laughter, daughter, which, know contain letters which are not pronounced);

b) one and the same letter may be pronounced differently in similar surroundings (u is

pronounced as [u] in put but [^] in cut);

c) the same combination of letters can indicate different sounds in different words (ea in heard, bear, speak, great, heart);

d) one and the same sound can be spelt differently in different words ([^] is spelt u in sun, cut,

butter, but o in love, son, brother);

at thegrammatical level: a) the existence of irregular plural forms of nouns is inexplicable from the modern point of view (children, geese, feet, fish, deer);

b) the verbs employing root vowel interchange or suppletion to make their principal forms are regarded as irregular and are opposed to those employing regular means to form Past Tense and Past Participle stems (run-ran-run, give-gave-given, speak-spoke-spoken, go-went-gone, be-was, were-been, etc.);

c) ending s in the 3d p. sg. Present Simple Indicative (I go but she goes);

in the sphere of vocabulary: likeness between the words of several languages,

e.g. German English

lang long

winter winter

Ich I

sitzen sit

sommer summer

French English

studir study

modeste modest

autumne autumn

changer change

Many other examples can be made to illustrate the exceptions from the general rules that proves to the fact that the language is not static, it developed in centuries, and now it has its history of evolution, preserving all those facts that make it so complicated and incomprehensible for language learners. The English language of today is the result of a long historical development which could not but influence all its levels as illustrated above. The evolution of the definite level depends upon the exact reasons and conditions stimulating changes in the vocabulary, grammar and phonetics.

Language evolution is characterized by the processes of growth and decay. Throughout its history the English language develops the analytical forms but the system of noun and adjective declensions dies out; some words are not used any longer but the others are borrowed or newly formed, as machine borrowed from French, or telephone built with the help of Greek roots.

The purpose of History of English is a study of the languages development at all its levels from the earliest times to the present day. To achieve the aim of having a more profound knowledge of the language of today a student should be able to do the following:

1. to trace the language from the initial period of its evolution up to present time;

2. to characterize the language at the earlier stages of its development;


:

  1. A Brief History of Clothes
  2. A Pidgin Language
  3. AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES. AFFIXATION.
  4. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUBCONSCIOUS LANGUAGE
  5. Cultural differences. Body language
  6. English Language
  7. Examples of compounding from different languages
  8. From the history of computer.
  9. From the History of Note-Taking
  10. FROM THE HISTORY OF THE WESTERN BOOT
  11. Germanic languages.
  12. History




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