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AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES. AFFIXATION.

WORD FORMATION IN THE ENGLISH

 

1. Word-formation and other ways of nomination in Modern English.

2. Two levels of morphological analysis.

2.1. Principles of morphemic analysis and its basic units.

2.2. Derivational analysis and basic units of derivational system.

3. Affixation. Classification of affixes.

 

1. Word-formation and other ways of nomination in Modern English.

 

Language is the main means of human intercourse. The communicative function, is the main function of the language; it is closely connected with the other, nominative function. We’ll speak about this function in more detail.

Nominative function is the function of giving names to things, objects; it is called nomination, i.e. a word is a nominative unit. What are the means of nomination in English and in Ukrainian?

 

 

Most often the new objects are named with the help of words already existing in the language. What is meant here is change of meaning. It's the first means of nomination.

Creation of new nominative units which may be words or word-groups - is the other means of nomination. New words are never pure inventions, i.e. they are never made up of nothing.

Very many words are borrowings, i.e. they are taken from other languages, e.g., detente, sputnik.

Another way of nomination is split of polysemy, when the word is highly polysemantic, some of its meanings are drift so far apart that the link between them is lost. E.g. watch existed in OE, it meant "vigil" (бодрствование), then it meant "people who were on guard'' (стража); 2. “a primitive device showing time”; 3. "new instrument, more perfect, showing time". By and by "a primitive device..." was forgotten, and the link between it and the "new instrument..." was forgotten; now there are two homonymous words: watch - 1. vigil, 2. instrument showing time.

Another type of nomination is numerous abbreviations, e.g., YCL, exam, p.m., a.m., etc.

Opposed to all these there is a way of nomination which is more important, it is the creation of new words. (word-formation). E.g., bridge-builder, neocolonialism, wage-freeze, minicar, writer. Some words are formed with the help of suffixes or prefixes, i.e. the formation of new words out of morphological, derivational elements existing in the language, after some definite patterns. This is what is called word-formation– is a patterned, way of making new words out of the material existing in the language. W-formation is one of the main means of nomination. It differs from the other types of nomination because it's a patterned way (some linguists are of opinion that abbreviation is patterned too, but its patterns are different from those of word-formation).

Change of meaning and split of polysemy are closely connected. Abbreviation is connected with patterned ways (according to some linguists). All the ways of nomination are at the same time ways of replenishing of the vocabulary, but word-formation is only one part of replenishing of the vocabulary.

 

2. The two levels of morphological analysis.

In Modern linguistics there are two levels of approach to the study of morphological structure of words: the level of morphemic analysis (i.e. segmentation of a word into morphemes, the number and type of these morphemes), and the level of derivational analysis (i.e. derivational pattern after which the word has been built). E.g., en/courage – en/courage/ment – the number of morphemes is 2 and 3, the morphological structure of these words is different;

en/courage/ment - courage/ous/ly – the number of morphemes is the same, but the nature is different: pf – root – sf, R – sf – sf.

en/courage/ment – un/employ/ment – the number and the nature of morphemes is the same, thus, according to the morphemic analysis their structure is the same (pf – R – sf). But the derivational structure is different: the first is the suffixal formation – encourage/ment; the second case is a prefixal formation - un/employ/ment.

 


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Classification of phraseological units and their structural types. | 

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