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The main rules of conveying English sounds in Ukrainian translation of proper names.

[æ] - a, e. Angela-, , Andy- , .

[٨] - a, y, o. Ulrica- , ; Ulster- , Doug- .

[u:] [ju]-. ,. Cooper- , Judy-, Muriel-̒, Ouse-., Purim-, Rubens- , UNESCO- .

[ð] - is substituted for , , : Caruthers-, , Brothers- , Carmarthenshire- .

[ө] , , (in Greek names): Bath- . , Dartmouth- , but Athos- , Carthage- , .

[ŋ] . Darlington- , Goulding- .

[l] , Larry-, , Charles- , Clinton- .

Some componental phonemes may have traditionally established substitutions in separate nouns. Thus,

[w] may be or . Washington- , Wales- , Westminster- , Wilde- , Bristow- , Show- .

So, English proper names are either transcribed or transliterated(or partly transcribed and partly transliterated) in Ukrainian. Mostly transcribed are names surnames containing specific English vowel phonemes: Abe , Eli , Aileen , Chauncey .

A number of English names are rendered by the way of transliteration only: Barbara, Victor, Adams, Barker, Clark, Wilson, Robert, etc.

Some proper names are transliterated with the omission or addition: McDonald , Dinah ij, Judah .

The bulk of all English proper names are also rendered into Ukrainian with the help of phonological / phonetical level units, i.e., either transcribed or transliterated. Care should be taken in order to avoid the influence of both the lingual and extralingual factors. E. g., the well known names as Adam, David can be , (Biblical or historical) or , (common peoples names). Similarly with Matthew, Paul, Rachel , , or , , ; Pope John Paul II .

Mostly translated are the names of kings, queens, princes, princesses. There are exceptions: King Charles /George , ; Queen Elisabeth, Mary Stewart , .

Nicknames of people are almost always translated King Richard the Lion heart , Tsar Ivan the Terrible, Prince Svyatoslav the Brave.

Prince Charles of Wales mass media gives the wrong translation instead of .

Indian chiefs names and family names of American Indians are translated: Chingachgook the Big Serpen ׳ , Hawks Eye , John Running Deer ҳ .

A considerable number of English geographical names are rendered into Ukrainian by way of transcription only: Capetown, Dashwood , Seattle ѳ. In recent decades there had been a general tendency to transcribe or transliterate and not translate. Some words are rendered with the help of transcription and partly via transliteration: Birmingham , Brighton .

A few proper and geographical names have a traditionally established form which doesnt reflect their pronunciation or orthographic form: Maine Me ( ), Texas Texac, Lake Superior , the Arctic Ocean ϳ .

Names of seas, oceans, bays, channels and territories having the structure of word combinations are translated: the Gulf of Mexico , Transcarpathian Region of Ukraine, Krasnodar Territory; Sea of Azov.

Many geographical names require some identifying element in the TL: the Seychelles - -; Sutherland ( 䳿); Donets coal field, Lviv region, oblast.

3. Conveying the names of companies, corporations, firms.

3.1. Traditionally, most names of companies are transcribedor transliteratedand shortly explicated at the same time. This method is also employed when rendering the names of publishing houses, titles of newspapers, magazines. A shorter explication is practiced when the name of the company is well- known, a longer when translating at speech / text level. Campbell Soups Co. , British American Tobacco Co. ᒺ -. , but: General Motors .

Ukrainian companies, firms, state or private bodies are translated according to the same rule. E.g.: Kyiv Svitanok civil services firm, Lviv Prohres footwear firm.

3.2. Translation of the names of publishing houses is performed according to the same rules. Cambridge University Press , Associated Book Publishers- -

Frequently, the names of British (American, etc) publishing houses are not mentioned at all. In translation we should add the identifying noun : Penguin Books - ϳ , Random House (USA) . i ().

Names of Ukrainian publishing houses are rendered into English similarly: with noun Publishers or Publishing House added to it.

- Dnipro Publishers, - Shkola Publishing House (primary and secondary school manuals, reference books, dictionaries).

3.3. Similarly the names of news agencies are rendered: Reuters (News Agency) . , , Russian TASS / Novosti News Agency .

3.4. Names of theatres, cinemas, hotels are also mostly reproduced through transcription or transliteration and explication at the sme time. The Empire ( ), The Kyiv Young Spectators Theatre; Kyiv Cinema Hall. The Royal Court Hotel , ,- the Dnipro, Moskva restaurant; the Ukraine Hotel.

3.5. Names of Ukrainian newspapers, journals require in English more extended explication than in Ukrainian: the Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada Holos Ukrainy newspaper; Ukrainian teachers of foreign languages Inozemni Movy journal.

The titles of English papers are less explicated in Ukrainian translation: the New York Times - , the article before the tittles is mostly omitted. The Teacher ҳ ( )

3.6. The names of streets, avenues and squares used in contextual environment, they are transcribed or transliterated: Wall Street -, Oxford Street -.

When used out of context there must be additional noun , , : The streets with numbers have them translated, First Avenue , Lesya Ukrainka Avenue; in translation plus noun Andruivskyi Uzviz Road. The names of streets given in honour of some events are translated: The Friendship of Nations Avenue.

The names of English squares are mostly transcribed with adding : Percy Circus . Parliament Square . e-, .

district, rayon

residential area in

3.7. Names of public bodies such as political parties, trade unions, national or international bodiesare translated: the Labour party , Dynamo sports society.

Names trade union, association, society, brotherhood, organization, union should always be translated as . Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers ᒺ .

Ukrainian trade unions in the some way: , - Ukrainian Public Education, Higher School and Scientific Institutions Workers Union.

3.8. Specific attention should be paid to the translation of the names of institutions, enterprises, etc., bearing honorary names. In English the honorary name precedes the enterprise, whereas in Ukrainian it follows the name.

Humboldt State College . , . - Ukrainian Academician Vernadskyi National Library.

Care should be taken to avoid the expression the named after which is to be used only in explanatory versions. Hence, the Lviv V. Stefanyk library and never the named after V. Stefanyk Lviv library.

 

 


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Rules and methods of Romanization of different Ukrainian proper nouns. | Ways of conveying the lexical meaning of genuine internationalisms.

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