Stylistic resources of tense and aspect in English and Ukrainian

The Verb.

The verb both in English and Ukrainian has more developed system of grammatical categories than any other part of speech. The stylistic function of verb is the result of complex correlation between a verb form and syntactic structures in which this form can be used and/or grammatical transposition. The most characteristic feature of English is the polysemy of the English verb tense forms. The functions of certain tense forms are regarded as stylistically motivated. Let us consider some examples of expressive connotations that arise due to the specific usage of tense forms.

Continuous aspect is more expressive that Indefinite. It is used do denote the action that expose the heros character, to render the meaning of surprise, indignation, doubt, etc.


Everythings so damned considerate! (I. Show).

Ruth: You are burning yourself out. And for what?..

George: You dont even begin to understand youre no different from the rest. Burning myself out! You bet Im burning myself out! Ive been doing that for so many years now and who in hell cares? (J. Osborne).

But what about me? Im going to look a proper bloody fool, arent I? (Ibid).

In Ukrainian the similar function and the meaning of continuity is supported by different lexical and syntactical means: contextual synonyms, repetition, gradation, etc.:

... , ... - ... (. ).

Present forms used instead of past or future are also stylistically marked; they make the text more vivid and expressive:


Then he comes back, crooks his finger, gives you cultured pearl necklace, hes smuggled in and you fall into his arms (D. Cusack).

. , , 쳺, , , , , (. -).


English archaic verbal forms perform different stylistic functions (dost, knowest, livest, hast for the 2nd person singular, present; doth, knowth, liveth for the 3d person singular present and hadst, didst for past; , , ). They create the atmosphere of past epochs or make the utterance solemn and poetic.

Transposition of tense and personal forms of verb is another potential way to change the tone and modality of an utterance. The interchange between the first and the second person singular makes the utterance sound either more confidential, intimate or, on the contrary, - more generalized and impersonal:


, (. ).

You kept from thinking and it was all marvelous. You were equipped with goon insides so that you did not go to pieces that way that moat of them had (E. Hemingway).

Ukrainian full, contracted and diminutive verb forms can express different shades of stylistic meaning: , ; , ; etc. Most contracted and diminutive forms of Ukrainian verb (characteristic to colloquial or dialectal types of language) being used in poetry or emotive prose either perform the function of dialectal stylization or secure the solemn tone of the utterance.


(. ).

... (. ).


  1. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  3. Articulatory aspect of speech sounds
  4. Contribution of Ukrainian linguists to lexicological studies.
  5. Development of the Continuous Aspect
  6. English modal verbs having not always modal verb equivalents in Ukrainian.
  8. Ex. 7. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the forms of the Gerund.
  9. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.
  11. Interrelation of Etymological and Stylistic Characteristics of Words.
  12. IV Analyze verb-forms and translate the following sentences. Match the verb-forms with their tenses in Active or Passive Voice.

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