Stylistic resources of English and Ukrainian Word-building

Lecture No 3. Stylistic resources of English and Ukrainian Grammar

Grammar is a branch of linguistics that studies grammatical structure of language, its units on different language levels: the levels of morphology and syntax. It consists of morphology, word-building and syntax, the latter being further subdivided into the level of phrase, the level of sentence and the level of text. Grammatical Stylistics, taking into consideration data obtained within the domain of grammar, studies grammatical means which are able to produce specific stylistic effect according to the aim and purpose of speech.



Speaking about the stylistic function of word in a context we cannot omit the question of word building models expressiveness and the way it enriches the stylistic system of the language. Stylistic peculiarities of the words created according to certain word building patterns are distinguished by contrasting two or more lexical units with the same root but different affixes: . It goes without saying that the latter four words render additional stylistic connotations and are more emotionally loaded than the first one. There are a number of morphemes with different lexico-grammatical meanings that impart additional shades of expressiveness to the word and, apart of their inherent properties, serve as the vehicle of additional information (logical, emotive, evaluative) and are used for stylistic purposes.

What does it mean to use a morpheme for stylistic purpose?

A morpheme is foregrounded through its repetition. Both root and affixation morphemes can be emphasized through repetition.

It was there again, more clearly then before: the terrible expression of pain in her eyes; unblinking, unaccepting, unbelieving pain (D. Uhnak).

New scum, of course, has come to take the place of the old, but the oldest scum, the thickest scum, and the scummiest scum has come from across the ocean (E. Hemingway).

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When repeated morphemes come into the focus of attention and stress either the logical meaning of the word or its emotive or evaluative meaning. They also inevitably add the rhythmical effect to the text and contribute to its unity. Morphemic repetition is also a powerful means to create humoristic, sarcastic effect, a resourceful way to characterize the speaker as in the following sentence:




Another way of morphemic foregrounding to create additional information is extension of its normative valency, which results in the formation of new words. These words are created for special communicative situations and are not used beyond these occasions. This is why they are called occasional words; they are characterized by their freshness, originality, lucidity of their inner form and meaning and are aimed to attract readers or hearers attention by their novelty and unpredictability:


The girls could not take their panamas hats because this was not far from the school gates and hatlessness was an offence (M. Spark).

To think that I should have lived to be good-morninged by Belladonna Tooks son (A. Tolkien).


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The analysis of English and Ukrainian word-building patterns from the stylistic point of view reveals the fact that in both languages there is little coincidence in the number of morphological units rendering different stylistic meanings as well as in the nomenclature of their functional and stylistic variants.

The following word building patterns are regarded stylistically relevant:


  2. Contribution of Ukrainian linguists to lexicological studies.
  3. English modal verbs having not always modal verb equivalents in Ukrainian.
  5. Ex. 7. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the forms of the Gerund.
  6. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.
  8. Interrelation of Etymological and Stylistic Characteristics of Words.
  9. LECTURE 1. Contrastive Stylistic as a Linguistic Discipline
  10. LECTURE3.2. Text stylistics as branch of functional stylistics. Subject, tasks.
  11. Linguistic status of American English.
  12. Middle English Phonetic System

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