LECTURE3.2. Text stylistics as branch of functional stylistics. Subject, tasks.
Readiness (prepared) or unpreparedness of the speech
Nature of subject and addressee of the speech
- the individual – works from himself, is directly connected with the addressee of the speech
- the collective – the representative of group of the people which views it reflects and divides, is characteristic for the political sphere
- the abstracted – the subject and the addressee of the speech are depersonalized (обезличиваются), is characteristic for the official sphere of communication.
Classification of styles
The term is entered because distinctions between some styles are so essential that is inexpedient to unite them into one style.
Functional and style stratification (расслоение) of the speech isn't reduced only to 5 main styles, and represents a difficult picture as each style (especially functional) is subdivided into substyle and on more private versions, etc. thus lines of macrostyle aren't lost, they are shown in any text.
The F.S. is one of the stylistics directions. Studying subject of it: whole text. It studies regularities of the organization of the text as speech work depending on the purposes, aim of communication, the contents and functional-style element.
The F.S. as the special direction was issued only in the last decade. It is connected with development of linguistics of the text.
The linguistics of the text studies structure of the text and textual units (is worked in grammar of the text). The stylistics of the text study the stylistic importance of language unit in the concrete text or type of texts, a role of these units in creation to style specifics of the text, expression of its contents, thus, functional aspect assumes unity of form and content.
One of sections of functional stylistics is a text.
The text is integrated semantic relation of sequence of language units. Main properties: connectivity, integrity, completeness.
In modern linguistics 3 understandings of the term "text" are widespread:
- unit of the highest level of language system
- speech unit, result of speech activity
- unit of communication possessing semantic completeness
In functional stylistics the text corresponds to its extralinguistic basis. The attention to communicative expediency of use of resources of language in this or that sphere, a communication situation is thus paid.
Such approach assumes (принимать/ предполагать):
- the text carries out interaction between the author and the addressee
- always reflects an author's idea
- represents the speech system peculiar to this sphere of communication
- it is always focused on the addressee of the speech.
In the basic of it there are linguistic and extralinguistic factors. The most widespread classification is classification by genre and stylistic elements:
- the art
- the scientific
- the business
- the publicistic (The publicistic FS comprises the following sub-styles: the language style of oratory; the language style of essays; the language style of feature articles in newspapers and journals)
- colloquial (questions is debatable)
Differentiation on nature of creation of the speech is possible:
- from the 1st person
- from the 2nd persons
- from the 3rd persons
By number of participants of communication:
Differentiation on functional semantic appointment:
- reasoning (рассуждение)