In both examples the sounds differ in articulations, but in the second case the sounds have functionally no significance.


The functional action of speech sounds.

The repetition of identical or similar sounds, which is called alliteration, helps, together with the words to which they belong, to impart a melodic effect to the utterance and to express certain emotions.

Regular recurrence of accented elements, or rhythm, may be used as a special device not only in poetry, but in prose as well.

Phonetics is also connected with stylistics through repetition of words, phrases and sounds. Repetition of this kind serves the basis of rhythm, rhyme and alliteration.

Due to the position of word accent we can distinguish between homonymous words and word group, e.g.

blackbird [] - black bird [ ]

(3) Phonetics is also connected with Stylistics. First of all through intonation and its components: speech melody, utterance stress, rhythm, pausation and voice tamber which serve to express emotions, to distinguish between different attitudes on the part of the author and speaker. Very often the writer helps the reader to interpret his ideas through special words and remarks such as: a pause, a short pause, angrily, hopefully, gently, incredulously, etc.

If the author wants to make a word or a sentence specially prominent or logically accented, he uses graphical expressive means [words and expressions must, dont tell us, etc.].

Onomatopoeia, a combination of sounds which imitate sounds produced in nature, is one more stylistic device which can serve as an example of the connection between phonetics and stylistics, e.g. tinkle, jingle, clink, ting, chink; chatter, jabber, clatter, babble, etc.

When we talk about the sounds of the language, the term sound may be interpreted in two different ways:

1. At first we can say that [t] being voiceless and [d] being voiced and we can illustrate this by showing how they contrast with each other to make differences of meaning in a large number pairs of words.

tie-die - phonemes

2. On the other hand if we listen carefully to the sound [t] in let us and compare it with the sound in let them we can hear that these two sounds are not the same:

[t] is alveolar in let us

[t] is dental in let them

To avoid this ambiguity the linguists use two separate terms:

phoneme is the smallest language unit which is used to mean sound in its contrastive sense (if we change one phoneme into another, it may lead to the changing of the meaning of the word);

allophone is which is used for sounds which are variants of one and the same phoneme.

The founder of this phoneme theory was Baudouin de Courtenay, the Russian scientist of polish origin. His theory was developed by professor Scherba who was the head of Leningrad linguistic school and professor Vasilyev who in his book English phonetics. A theoretical course. defined the phoneme as the smallest contrastive language unit of sound type which exists in the speech of all the members belonging to the same language community in the form of speech sounds which are capable of distinguishing one word of the same language or grammatical form from another word or grammatical form of the same word.


  1. Articulatory aspect of speech sounds
  2. Different phonological schools and their concept of phoneme
  3. Different valency
  4. Differentiating consonants with same location and manner of articulation
  5. Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to Participle Constructions in different syntactic functions.
  6. Figure 2.4 PCM and difference coding
  7. Lexical differences between languages
  8. Non-systematic Differences between Gen Am and RP.
  9. Rules and methods of Romanization of different Ukrainian proper nouns.
  10. The Functional Aspect of Speech Sounds
  11. The main rules of conveying English sounds in Ukrainian translation of proper names.

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