Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to Participle Constructions in different syntactic functions.

Grammar exercises

1. A metal disk implanted in the semiconductor distorts the electric field lines.

2. Implanted in the semiconductor, a metal disk distorts the electric field lines.

3. Spintronic memory being based on magnetic, semiconducting nanoparticles can be used in the future to produce nanostructured computer.

4. Being based on magnetic, semiconducting nanoparticles, spintronic memory provides a promising direction to a nanostructured computer.

5. A voltage applied across the ends of a semiconductor slab () sets up an electric field.

6. If applied across the ends of a semiconductor slab, a voltage sets up an electric field, the latter causing randomly moving electrons to drift along the slab.

7. The concept of photonic crystals having been theoretically formulated was used later to produce the first photonic crystal.

8. The concept of photonic crystals having been theoretically formulated, the first photonic crystal was fabricated much later.

9. Scientists created new nanomaterials, the latter having tunable electronic properties. The properties of these new nanomaterials being strongly dependent on their location along the nanotube, these new nanomaterials are believed to have far-reaching prospects to design single-molecule devices.

10. The properties of nanomaterials being strongly dependent on their location along the nanotube make these materials suitable for single-molecule devices.

Exercise 2. Point out Adverbial Participle constructions and Absolute Participle constructions in the following sentences, translate them accordingly.

1. If tested successfully, this particular vibration isolation will be adequate for the modern hardware developed recently.

2. Being one of the best known solidstate devices, the Hall Effect sensor is still attracting considerable attention of scientists.

3. The temperature increasing, no degradation of the sensor is observed.

4. Structural approaches of nanotechnology facilities having been discussed, scientists came to the conclusion that nanotechnology requires extremely stable environment.

5. Being based mainly on silicon or semiconductors, the conventional Hall Effect sensors have a remarkably low cost.

6. Vibration environments having been explored, researches could provide manufactures with advanced nanotechnology.

7. Environment permitting, nanomechanisms will work almost perfectly under these conditions.

8. The needs of the users having been correctly assessed, nanotechnology designers focused their attention on good vibration environments.

9. Though situated in a relatively quiet location, the equipment still needed a reliable internal vibration isolation.

10. If developed, new technologies will be used for measuring nanoscale forces and dimensions.

11. Appropriate nanotechnology criteria having been specified due to thorough research, scientists cannot always incorporate them in nanotechnology facilities.

12. Being successfully used in memory circuits, resonant tunneling devices deserve special attention in the context of this report.

13. The field lines and the current flow being concentrated through the metal disk, the more current flows through the device than when the disk is absent.

14. Gold disks were embedded in one-millimeter-radius disks, the gold disks being about 1.5 microns thick.

15. The size of a bit of information on a magnetic disk being reduced to increase storage density, the sensitivity of read-head must also increase.

16. Being fabricated from nonmagnetic materials, the read heads would not suffer from magnetic noise limitations.

17. Discovered in Japan, carbon nanotubes are divided into two basic types: single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs).

18. Being hollow, nanotubes are lightweight, transparent to visible light and are excellent conductors of electricity.

19. Though first demonstrated in nanotube transistors in the late 1990, nanotubes were first commercially used as structural reinforcements in composites and in lithium-ion batteries.

20. The temperature rising from absolute zero to 78000 K, disintegration of a double-wall nanotube happens.

21. Made of structures designed at the molecular level, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) machines with moving parts could be employed as nanomechanical sensors, switchers as well as for more elaborate robotic functions.

22. Environmental vibration being reduced, the images produced by the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) become much better.



  1. A) Participle I.
  2. Arrange the following units into two lexical and two terminological sets. I Give them corresponding names.
  3. Combine the following words into sentences.
  4. Communicative functions.
  5. Complete the sentences with the correct word in brackets.
  6. Different phonological schools and their concept of phoneme
  7. Different valency
  8. Differentiating consonants with same location and manner of articulation
  9. Emphatic Negative Constructions
  10. Ex. 3. Are these sentences true or false in your understanding? Correct the false ones.
  11. Ex. 7. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the forms of the Gerund.

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