Key dates in science

1000The optical properties of lenses were first observed by the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham.

1088 The first known clock, which was powered by water, was invented in China by Han-Lien.

1090Compasses were first used by the Chinese and the Arabs to navigate at sea.

1202 The Italian scholar Leonardo Fibonacci published his Liber Abaci, the first European book to suggest the use of the Hindu-Arabic decimal number system.

1230 In China, gunpowder was first used as an explosive, to make bombs for attacking city walls.

1286 The first pair of glasses was made in Italy, probably by an Italian physicist named Salvino Degli Armato.



Grammar: Continuous Active

it, one, that

Text 5A. Environmental Protection must be Global.

Text 5B. Killer Rain.

Topic. Environmental Protection in Ukraine.


³ 䳺 to work Present Continuous Active


I am working   He She is working It We You are working They I am not working   He She is not working It We You are not working They Am I working? he Is she working? It   we Areyouworking? they


Exercise 1.Translate into Ukrainian and explain the use of the tense.

1. I am at my English lesson. I am sitting and doing my exercises. My friend is not sitting, he is standing at the blackboard and looking at me. 2. It is getting cold now, isnt it? Look out. Is it raining now? 3. What are you doing? I am translating a text. 4. It is getting late. Let us go home. 5. At the present moment I am laughing because I am so happy. 6. You must leave this place at once, my car is waiting for you at the corner of the street. 7. You are lying to me! 8. Oh, thats nonsense: you are always talking nonsense. 9. You dont really know anything about her, and youre always talking scandals against her. 10. I dont know what you are talking about. 11. Why are you looking at me so? 12. What are you doing on your computer? Im sending some e-mails. 13. Wait a minute, Im trying to think. 14. Look, the trains moving. Were off. 15. Youre going to the theatre! Great! I cant believe it! 16. James always goes to work by car. Today he is going by bus, because his car isnt working. 17. John is never satisfied. Hes always complaining. 18. Jim is very untidy. He is always leaving his things all over the place.

Exercise 2.Choose the correct form of the verb.

1. We (are translating, translate) a technical text now. 2. We usually (are not translating, do not translate) stories. 3. She (does not look, is not looking) through all the newspapers every evening. 4. I (watch, am watching) television every day. 5. The students often (have, are having) interesting discussions after lectures. 6. Where is Ann? She is in the coffee shop. She (has, is having) a cup of coffee. She always (has, is having) a cup of coffee in the evening. 7. Listen to that man! Do you understand what language he (speaks, is speaking)? 8. Hurry up! We (do not have, are not having) much time left. - I (am coming, come)! 9. She (tries, is trying) to lose weight, I think. She always (has, is having) light lunches. 10. I am sad. That is why I (cry, am crying). 11. She (cooks, is cooking) breakfast now. Will you please call back? 12. The bell (rings, is ringing). Ill answer it. 13. He (is eating, eats) all the time but she never (is getting, gets) fat. 14. You are young. Young people (are doing, do) a lot of foolish things. 15. She (waits, is waiting) for you. Yes, I know. 16. Come here a minute, will you? Oh, what (do you want, are you wanting)? Cant you see I (am watching, watch) the telly? 17. Ron is in London at the moment. He (stays, is staying) at the Park Hotel. He (is always staying, always stays) there when hes in London. 18. Usually I (am enjoying, enjoy) parties but I (do not enjoy, am not enjoying) this one very much.

Exercise 3.Translate the sentences.

1. . . . 2. ? - . 3. . 4. ! 5. ! . 6. , . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. , . 11. , . 12. , . 13. , . 14. ճ ? ͳ, . 15. . 16. . 17. ? . 18. ³ . .



³ 䳺 to work Past Continuous Active


I He She was working It We You were working They   I He She was not working It We You were not working They   I he Was she working? it   we Wereyou working? they



Exercise 4.Translate into Ukrainian and explain the use of the tense.

1. They were reading from five till seven yesterday. 2. The child was not sleeping when his mother came in. 3. The cold tap was dripping the whole night. 4. It was raining all day yesterday. 5. My mother was feeling fine when I got home. 6. I wasnt feeling at my best at the party so I didnt enjoy it. 7. I was typing when he rang. 8. At ten he was having breakfast. 9. The sun wasnt shining that day. 10. She wasnt driving the car when the accident happened. 11. They were having dinner when he knocked at the door. 12. Was it still raining when you arrived at the airport? No, it wasnt. 13. What were you doing at this time the day before yesterday? I dont remember exactly, but I was not working. 14. He was not writing the letter. He was sitting at the desk and thinking. 15. Suddenly I woke up. It was raining.

Exercise 5.Put the verbs in brackets into Past Indefinite or Past Continuous.

1. He (to try) to open the door when we (to see) him in the corridor. 2. What you (to think) about when I (to ask) you a question? 3. He (to stare) up at the ceiling, when I (to enter) his room. 4. They (to speak) about the latest events when she (to interrupt) them. 5. Why she (to sit) the whole day at home? 6. He (to sit) in the arm-chair and then (to begin) reading a book. 7. You (to see) her the day before yesterday? Yes, she (to stand) in the corridor speaking with her friends. 8. She (to eat) while she (to read). 9. I (to break) a plate when I (to lay) the table. 10. When he (to arrive) his wife (to talk) on the phone. 11. He (to watch) while she (to mix) the paint. 12. He (to feel) that it (to get) warm and took off his jacket. 13. He (to think) over his plans for the future when he (to hear) some noise. 14. When we (to join) the party they (to dance). 15. She (to know) so much about Europe that it was hard to believe that it was only from books, not from personal experience. She (to dream) about a trip to Europe all those years.

Exercise 6.Translate the sentences.

1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. ? ³ . 5. , . 6. . 7. , ? . . 8. . , . . 9. ? , . . . 10. . . , . , . .

³ 䳺 to work Future Continuous Active

I He She It will be working We You They I He She It will not be working We You They I he she Willit be working? we you they


Exercise 7.Translate into Ukrainian and explain the use of the tense.

1. I will be speaking to him tomorrow morning. 2. Ill be seeing them when its all over. 3. She will be waiting for you outside. 4. What will you be doing this time next week? 5. By then Ill be sitting comfortably at home. 6. Will you be seeing her again next week? 7. She will be complaining and crying again. 8. There will be snowing during the day. 9. The President will be giving a press conference tomorrow morning. 10. There is no point complaining about the hotel room well be leaving tomorrow in any case. 11. She will be waiting for you in the car. 12. When the hands of the clock are close to eleven, our train will be approaching Paris.

Exercise 8.Translate into English.

1. ³ . 2. . 2. . 3. ³ , ? 4. ? ͳ, . . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. ? 9. . 10. , ?

Exercise 9.Translate the sentences with onein different functions.

1. One must study a lot to become an engineer. 2. We must write only one exercise now. 3. Engineer is one of the most important professions, it is the one that is taught at technical institutes.4.One cannot translate such an article without a dictionary in the first year. 5. One must have a very good knowledge of general engineering subjects to become a good engineer. 6. One must pass all exams well to enter the University. 7. Last summer I read many English articles, and my friend read some German ones. 8. This summer we will spend in the country, the last one we spent in the city. 9. We translated many texts, but there is one more text to translate.10. One can take this journal from the library.

Exercise 10.Translate the sentences with it in different functions.

1. It is autumn. It is the 3rd of October. It is dark in the morning and it is difficult to get up. 2. It is a new subject. It is very important for our future speciality. Well study it for two years. It will be our future speciality, but we do not know much about it in first year. 3. It is known that the language of general engineering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects. 4. It seems that he works a lot. 5. It is said that the chemistry laboratory of our university is good. 6. The student finds it difficult to translate such a text without a dictionary. 7. It was not easy to study at the university. 8. It is important to understand the fundamentals of this science. 9. It was A.S. Popov who invented the radio. 10. It is the knowledge of general engineering subjects that is the basis of engineering training.

Exercise 11.Translate the sentences with that (those)in different functions.

1. That student studies in our group. 2. Do you know those girls? They are from our university. 3. The professor that lectures on mechanics is the dean of our faculty. 4. It is known that the knowledge of general engineering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects. 5. We know that the study of general engineering subjects is necessary for future engineers. 6. That higher education in this country is excellent is known to everybody. 7. The aim of todays foreign policy is that peace in the world should be permanent. 8. The programme for the first-year students differs from that of the third-year students. 9. There are many interesting articles in this journal, read those on your speciality. 10. It is the high qualification of future specialists that will determine the scientific and technological progress of any country.


Task 1. Learn the following words. Translate the sentences.

1. pollution . Noise pollution is a growing threat to our health.

2. evident , . It is evident that he was young.

3. reach . Everyone wants to reach a place comfortably and fast.

4. tremendous . It took the steam engine more than a century to develop its tremendous capacity to the full.

5. to suffer . He didnt suffer much in the accident.

6. however , . Its raining hard. However, I think we should go out.

7. use . To prepare metals for practical use requires much knowledge and experience.

8. to eliminate , . Some people were eliminated from the competition.

9. considerable . We had considerable difficulty in finding the house.

10. purpose . This tool can be used for various purposes.

11. scale . The machine system made it possible to include science in production on a large scale.

12. success . I tried to get in, but without success.

13. to carry out . He carried out his promise.

14. at present . At present we cannot take part in carrying out this experiment.

15. to determine . Atomic weights of 9 elements were wrongly determined.

16. growth . The population growth greatly enlarged the movement of passengers in big cities.

17. to increase , . Decreasing gas volume we increase pressure.

18. to bring about , . The discovery and use of electricity brought about the industrial revolution.

19. essential . We can live without clothes, but food and drink are essential to life.

20. environment . All countries have to protect the environment on their own territory and in their own space.

21. to solve . The most promising way to solve the problem of clean air is to improve technology.

22. therefore , . We dont have enough money. Therefore we cannot buy a new car.

23. necessary , . Ill come back if necessary.

23. datum (pl. data) (). We keep the data in a computer data bank.

24. joint , 璺. Joint efforts of all countries can solve the problem of environmental protection.

25. to deal with These articles deal with the investigations and achievements of world science in the field of radioactivity.

26. confident . The government is confident of winning the next election.

27. achieve . He will never achieve anything if he doesnt work.

28. to purify . Many operations are used to purify water.

28. soil , . A layer of soil formed in the course of 100 or 200 years may be destroyed in a few days of heavy rain or dust storms.

29. circumstances , . We can judge what he did till we know all circumstances.

Task II. Read and translate the text.

Text 5 A

Environmental Protection must be Global

That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the greater the ecological problems are becoming. Air and water pollution by industry is now reaching tremendous proportions. In our era it is changing from a national to an international problem, especially in territories where rivers cross several countries. The seas and oceans are also becoming seriously polluted. A similar situation is developing in the atmosphere. It is known that many cities throughout the world suffer from air pollution.

However, our scientific knowledge and technological advancement make it possible to eliminate it if people use good will and make considerable investments for that purpose. The development of natural resources on a global scale is already possible from a scientific and technical standpoint. Large-scale experimental work in this area is successfully being carried out.

At present scientists in industrially developed counties are working on the theory of interaction of all the atmospheric and oceanic global processes that determine the climate and weather of the world. Increasing growth of population, industrialization and the use of resources are slowly but surely changing the global climate and water balance. This can be described as a great experiment, one that may bring about changes in the environment more serious than ever before.

The essential feature in the environment protection is that many problems can be solved only on the level of world community. Therefore, the planning of protection against pollution by human society as a whole is imperative today and in the near future. It is necessary to develop an international program to study data on land, forest, atmospheric and oceanic resources, both renewable and non-renewable. It is the joint efforts of many scientists and special public organizations that can deal with the problem and take necessary measures to protect environment.

It is still a big job and much remains to be done. However, scientists are confident that planned actions of all countries can eliminate pollution and achieve successes in purifying air, water and soil and in safeguarding natural resources. At the same time one must realize that social and political circumstances may stand in the way of further progress in this field.

Exercise 12.Answer the following questions on the text:

1. What is this text about? 2. How do water and air become polluted? 4. Why is the problem of water pollution becoming a global problem? 5. What are the ways of eliminating this problem?

Exercise 13. Translate the following clusters of words into Ukrainian and state their part of speech.

Pollute pollution, evident evidence, ecology ecological, nation national, especial especially, serious seriously, science scientific, technology technological, advance advancement, eliminate elimination, invest investment, develop development, nature natural, experiment experimental, success successful successfully, interact interaction, atmosphere atmospheric, ocean oceanic, globe global, sure surely, protect protection, new renew renewable non-renewable, organize organization, pure purify.

Exercise 14.Translate the following word-combinations.

Air and water pollution; tremendous proportion; several countries; polluted seas and oceans; similar situation; throughout the world; technological advancement; good will; considerable investments; on a global scale; scientific and technical standpoint; developed countries; interaction of all processes; growth of population; water balance; use of resources; to bring about changes; essential feature; world community; renewable and non-renewable resources; joint efforts; to take necessary measures; to eliminate pollution; to achieve success; safeguarding natural resources; social and political circumstances.

Exercise 15. Form questions to which the following are answers. Begin your questions with the words given in brackets.

1. Water and air are becoming more and more polluted. (What ?) 2. There are government and public organizations that are analysing data on land, forest and air. (What ?) 4. The situation at the Sea of Azov is remaining very serious. (Where ?) 5. At present scientists are working on the theory of interaction of all the atmospheric and oceanic global processes. (What on?)

Exercise 16.Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying atten-tion to the active vocabulary of the text.

1. All-round automation determines the social consequences of the scientific-technological progress. 2. Transport is one of the main offenders in noise pollution. 3. Atomic energy must be used for peaceful purposes. 4. Only a strictly scientific approach to the industrial-technological development can solve ecological problems. 5. As the planets natural resources diminish, and a growing world population increases demands on those resources, competition for access to them will escalate. 6. Recent scientific research proved data that the protective layer of ozone around our planet is under severe attack. 7. Machine tillage of the soil affects its natural fertility. 8. Wars and preparations for them, such as tests of new types of armament, are having a tremendous destructive effect on the natural environment. 9. The use of nuclear weapons in a large scale war destroy vegetation and erode soil over vast territories. 10. The Sea of Azov suffers greatly from serious and chronic coastal water pollution. 11. Considerable improvements should be introduced into motor transportation operation to eliminate air pollution. 12. Its very difficult and very costly to purify every hour hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of air containing compounds of lead and mercury. 13. Human progress has reached the stage of intensive exploration of nuclear and solar energy, the World Ocean and outer space. 14. It is evident now, however, that often man is adversely affecting the environment.

Task III.Read and translate the text.

Text 5B. Killer rain

What is acid rain? To answer this question we need to go back about three decades. In the 1960s, people in Sweden were alarmed to discover that the fish in their West Coast lakes were dying. There were no apparent reasons for this no poison in the water, for example. The lakes were still clear and fresh.

When the scientists did their tests, however, they found that the lake water was much more acid than is normal. Some lakes, in fact, were a hundred times more acid than had been in the 1930s.

And the cause for this? It was the rain. Instead of being clean pure water, it had become contaminated by industrial processes and was now very acidic. When it fell on parts of Sweden where the soil was already acidic, the result was that acid water poured into Swedens lakes. This eventually killed the fish, and caused a good deal of other problems which are still being discovered.

To understand how the process works, imagine a factory in Britain. It needs heat for its manufacturing, so it burns oil. This has a high sulphur content, which turns into Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) after the oil burnt, and goes up the factory chimney into the air.

The SO2 can travel for hundreds of thousands of kilometres, depending on the wind. The longer it is in the air, the more chance there is of it oxidizing combining with oxygen to form sulphuric acid. The acid becomes a cloud, and eventually falls to earth as rain. This rain contains sulphate (SO4) which has been produced by the sulphuric acid.

If there was only one factory doing this, there would be no problem. Europe, however, is such an industrialized area that it sends about 20 million tones of sulphur into the air every year.

There is an old saying in English: What goes up, must come down. This 20 million tones is picked up by the wind. Some lands in the streets around the factory, but most of it is carried some distance, often to another country. Each nation in Europe produces hundreds of thousands of tons of poison each year, and then sends it abroad.

Obviously, all this sulphur must have an effect on the environment.

Take Sweden, for example. This country is in an unfortunate position, because of the direction of the winds across Europe, and because of the fact that large sections of its soil are already acidic.

Every day, Sweden receives more than 1,000 tonnes of sulphur from the air, most of it from other countries. This has been dropping on Swedish soil for the last forty years, and the result is horrific. 18,000 of the countrys 85,000 lakes are now acidified: 4,000 have no fish left and about another 6,000 have been seriously damaged.

The result can be seen in other countries, too. Germany suffers an estimated $800 million loss a year from lost trees killed by acid rain and another $600 million a year in damage to crops and agriculture. Approximately 1 million hectares in Central Europe have been affected.

As more countries become more heavily industrialized, then the amount of coal and oil that is burnt will increase. At the moment, the world sends between 75 and 100 million tons of sulphur into the air each year. Some scientists have estimated that, by the year 2100, this figure will have grown to 700 million tons.

Currently, the problem occurs in Europe, Scandinavia, Usa and states of the former USSR; but it is expected to appear soon in Brasil, Nigeria, Southern Africa, India, and South-East Asia. And there is another problem: it has recently been discovered that large sections of the Arctic are covered during the spring and winter by a sulphurous haze and no one knows yet what the effects of this will be.

The problem of acidification started in the early 1950s, so after only forty years we have caused a huge amount of environmental damage. There are a few short-term ways of correcting the acidification damage, but they are not permanent solutions. In the long term, we will have to find a way of getting the sulphur out of our oil and coal. It is possible to do this, either by treating the fuel before it is burnt, or by cleaning the smoke which comes out of the factory chimney.

The problem, however, is that both processes are expensive, and the countries which are the worst offenders (for example, the USA and the UK) are frightened of the amount of money they would have to spend. In the USA, for example, a sulphur cleaning scheme would cost between $2,500,000,00 and $4,000,000,000 per year.

Eventually, something will have to be done. Acid rain has been described as a catastrophe of a leisurely kind, trouble building up a shower at a time. The catastrophe is getting less leisurely every year. Either we spend money now, and sort the problem out, or we spend a lot more in the future, when the ecology becomes completely overloaded, and a disaster occurs.


  1. History of language as a science.
  2. Key dates in science
  3. Key dates in science
  4. Key dates in science
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VOCABULARY NOTES | Vocabulary notes

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