Key dates in science

1769The Scottish inventor James Watt produced the first version of his improved steam engine.

1774An English chemist, Joseph Priestley, discovered and isolated oxygen gas.

1783The first flight in a hot-air balloon took place in Paris, France.

1789Antoine Lavoisier, a French lawyer and scientist, published his Elementary Treatise on Chemistry, which became the basis for modern chemistry.

1796In England, Edward Jenner performed the first vaccination.

1799Alessandro Volta, an Italian physicist, built the first battery.




Grammar: .

Text 9A. Television.

Text 9B. Telegraph.

Topic. Mass Media.



(䳺- )
Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect Continuous Past Indefinite Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous ij - 䳺
Present Perfect Past Indefinite Past Perfect ij 䳿
Future Indefinite Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous Future Ind. in the Past Future Cont. in the Past Future Perf. in the Past Future P. C. in the Past ij 䳿
Sequence of tenses
She lives in Kyiv.   I knew that she lived in Kyiv.
He is working.   Ithoughtthat hewas working.  
I have been writing a letter for an hour. I said that I had been writing a letter for an hour.  
He has left Kyiv.   Ididnt knowthat hehad leftKyiv. ij
She lost her keys. I knew that she had lost her keys.  
He will write a letter to his father. He said that he would write a letter to his father.  
He will be writing a letter at five oclock. He said that he would be writing a letter at five oclock.  
He will have written a letter by five oclock. He said that he would have written a letter by five oclock.  

Exercise 1. Say whether the action of the object clause precedes, follows or is simultaneous with the action of the principal clause in the following sentences:

1. He thought I was not looking and hid himself in a little house. 2. Remember, you were telling me what a wonderful instrument it was. 3. I replied that I should be very pleased to do so. 4. Ted telegraphed that he would be three days late. 5. They told her he had married one of the country girls. 6. I wondered if he had been there, if he had heardanything. 7. She felt they had become friends. 8. He asked me what work I was doing and whether I intended to go to the University. 9. She asked me where I had been all day. 10. He said that he had been to Geneva the year before and he would go there again the next year. 11. The girl said that she was waiting for the London bus, and they told it had already gone. 12. He said that he did not know where the boy was. 13. Then she asked me where I livedand who my parents were. 14. She said that she was watching the sunset. 15. When she returned she said to her brother that his bride was the liveliest girl she hadever seen.16. He said that he did noteven knowhis relatives, hadnever heardof them, and had never seen them before. 17. He asked me what I was thinking about.

Exercise 2.Make the actions in the following object clauses simultaneous with those of their principal clauses:

1. I was surprised you (to know) my name. 2. She could not imagine what he (to do) there 3. I forgot what he (to look) like. 4. He told his father that then he (to make) ten dollars a week less. 5. She said to everyone who phoned her that she (to be) unwell and (not to leave) home. 6. It was strange to me that her world (to seem) to contain no conflict. 7. When I knew him better he admitted that he (to feel) lonely in London. 8. I felt that I at last (to know) her well enough. 9. She felt that her farther (not to want) to disturb her. 10. He rang up to ask how Elisabeth (to feel), and whether she (can) go to a concert on Sunday morning.

Exercise 3.Make the actions in the following object clauses precede those of their principal clauses:

1. David said that he (to ask) permission from the director for me to watch the dress rehearsal. 2. I knew that for the past twenty-five years he (to buy) the same paper each morning. 3. It was not known where he (to spend) his early childhood. 4. Of course he wondered why you (to cry). 5. It was a pity that you (to miss) the concert. 6. Her mother once confessed that she (to want) to be an actress. 7. I knew that he (to come) early. 8. Have you heard that I (to be) given that job. 9.She had telephoned her husband to the office to say that her brother (to return) from abroad. 10. He rang up to ask if they (to have) a good time in Italy.

Exercise 4.Make the actions in the following object clauses follow those of their principal clauses:

1. He decided that he (to go) to Berlin as soon as possible. 2. I sent them a telegram this morning to say I (to go) to England and that I (to write). 3. They wondered if he (to come) back. 4. Before leaving the house in the morning, she had told her mother she (to work) in the hospital that afternoon. 5. He was young and hoped that hard work (to do) great things for him in the future. 6. She asked me if I (to drop) her on the way into town. 7. I always knew you (to be) a success in America. 8. They were sure that she (not to come) the next day because she was very busy. 9. Our neighbours promised that they (to help) us to repair the house.


Direct speech Reported speech
today yesterday tomorrow ago this here tonight last year last month next the day after tomorrow that day the day before the next day/ the following day before/ previously that there that night the year before the month before the following in two days time
Reported commands
Dont move! Stop!
He told them He ordered them not to move and stop.


Exercise 5.Change direct speech into indirect speech:

1. Open your book at page ten, said our teacher to us. 2. Dont ask me such stupid questions! said Susan to him. 3. Dont make so much noise, said mother to her children. 4. Please, open the window, asked granny. 5. Dont phone me so late, she asked me. 6. Leave your keys on the table, please, mother told me. 7. Have your tickets ready, a man told us. 8. Dont smoke in my room, she asked him. 9. Stay back! ordered the police. 10. Give me a lift into the city, please, she asked me.

Exercise 6.Change direct speech into indirect speech:

1. My friend said to me: I have not seen you for ages! 2. He said: There is nobody here to stop them. 3. Jane said: I am all right. Nothing worries me. 4. She is not here. She has just left the office, the secretary said to us. 5. There is no one by that name here, they answered. 6. We have tried to telephone to Odessa for him, they said. 7. I dont think I will have done this work by the evening, she said. 8. I was in London last year, she said to me. 9. Joan said to Mary: I didnt feel very well yesterday. 10. We were in this city two years ago, he said. 11. He said: I worked at this factory five years ago.

Exercise 7.Translate the following sentences. Explain why the rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed in the subordinate clauses of the bold type.

1. I didnt know, I must confess, that Mars revolves about the Sun at a distance of 140, 000, 000 miles.2. Now I could fully realize that custom is a second nature. 3. The teacher of physics said that there is the force of gravity in the Universe.4. The teacher of the Ukrainian literature said that Taras Shevchenko was born in 1814.5. He told that Paris is the capital of France.6. The doctor said he must give up smoking.7. He decided we ought to celebrate the occasion.7. He said nobody should touch the thing.8. I assured him they neednt know more.


Reported questions( )
  He asked (me) He wanted to know He did not know He wondered
  Are you happy? Do you speak English? Does she workat a plant? Is he watching TV? Have you done your work? Did you borrow the dictionary? Will she come tomorrow?     if whether       I was happy. I spoke English. she workedat a plant. he was watchingTV. I had done my work. I had borrowed the dictionary. she would come the next day.
  He asked (me) He wanted to know He did not know He wondered
  Why are you late? Where does she live? What are they doing? What have you bought? When did you startlearning English? Where will you go?   why I was late. where she lived. what they were doing. what I had bought. when I had started learning English. where I would go.



Exercise 8.Change direct speech into indirect speech.

1. The passenger asked: Wheres the information desk? 2. They asked: How much are the tickets? 3. The man asked me: Do you know what time the train gets to Odessa? 4. He asked his grandson: Have you any idea where I put my glasses? 5. He asked Peter: How long do you work every day? 6. Her friend asked her: Why do you keep complaining all the time? 7. Mother asked: Why havent you had your breakfast yet? 8. Janet asked Helen: How did your husband react to the news? 9. Whom are you waiting for? he asked them. 10. Why did you return home so late last night? my mother said to me. 11. When did they leave the country? he asked. 12. Do you believe him? said the old lady. 13. Where were they last night? said Dan to them. 14. Why do you think the exam will be easy? she asked me.

Exercise 9.Translate into English observing the rules of the sequence of tenses.

1. ³ , , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. ³ , . 6. , . 7. ̳ , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , . 11. , . 12. , . 13. , . 14. , . 15. ³ , . 16. , , . 17. ³ , . 18. , . 19. ³ , . 20. , , , . 21. , . 22. , . 23. , . 24. , . 25. , . 26. , , . 27. , .


  1. History of language as a science.
  2. Key dates in science
  3. Key dates in science
  4. Key dates in science
  5. Key dates in science
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