Design Principles Guide

The principles of design are applicable to all design disciplines including architecture, fashion, art, graphics, industrial poetry, writing, web.

The principles of design are tools used to format the elements of design. The Basic Design Principles are: Balance, Emphasis / Focal Point, Illusion of Motion, Texture, Value, Scale / Proportion, Rhythm, Unity, Line, Shape / Volume, Illusion of Space and Colour.


The simpliest type of balance is called symmetrical balance which has a basic appeal to the viewer.

Asymmetrical balance is achieved by unlike object that have "equal eye attraction". Asymmetrical balance is based on:

- Balance by Value and Color

- Balance of Shape and texture

- By Position and Eye direction

Emphasis / Focal Point

The ways to achieve Emphasis includes by contrast, by isolation and by placement.

Contrast can be created in size, shape, color, texture, shape irregularities, etc.

Successful designs do not necessarily need a defined focal point. Sometimes the designer wishes to emphasize the entire composition surface over an individual element.


The surface quality of an object is called texture. The variations of light / dark patterns of various textures are indications for visual enjoying. Artists make us of contrasts in surfaces to add visual enhancements.

Two categories of artistic texture include tactile and visual.

Visual texture is the impression of texture created by the artist by attempting to reproduce the color and value of real world textures.


A recurrence or repetition of one or more elements within a visual composition with the goal of creating harmony is a rhythmic feeling. It is a principle based on repetition. It is a distinct reputation of elements that are the same or slightly changed.

Rhythmic reputation does not only occur in regards to shape and their arrangement by also in colors or textures.

Alternating rhythm consists of successive patterns in which the element(s) continue to appear in a regular distinct order.

Progressive Rhythm is repetition of a shape the changes in a very regular manner.
Harmony is the condition of agreement with the use of all visual elements within a composition. A number of methods promote Unity. These include:



-Continuation element "continues" to use the line, an edge, or a direction.



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