Exercise 2. Make transformations according to the model.

Model: Consumers wish prices would go down.

Consumers hope that prices will go down.

I wish I could work harder.

I hope I can work harder. 1. The head of the department wishes that competition would lessen.

2. The Market Research Department wishes the test results would be ready soon.

3. The Manager wishes that sales would improve.

4. We wish all the departments could fulfil their tasks.

5. Sally wishes that the Packaging Department could hurry up.





Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to dring goods to the market. Generally indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.

Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for one-third of total sales.

Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There arc also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.

Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket storks 5.000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6.000 items. As ,a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store-keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.


  1. Additional Exercise
  2. Definition of way of crystallization at polymorphic transformations
  3. Equilibrium and phase transformations of matter
  4. Exercise
  6. Exercise 1
  7. Exercise 1
  8. Exercise 1
  9. Exercise 1
  10. Exercise 1
  11. Exercise 1
  12. Exercise 1

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Dialogue | Comprehension Questions

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