A CAREER IN LAW
Навчальний посібник з дисципліни “Англійська мова. Спецкурс”призначений для студентів денної та заочної форм навчання юридичного факультету.
Актуальність посібника полягає в тому, що в ньому скомпоновані у відповідності з навчальною програмою фахові матеріали англійською мовою.
Це полегшує вивчення студентами (особливо заочниками) спец. курсу з англ. мови.
Мета посібника – навчити студентів володіти юридичною термінологією, роботі з літературою за фахом, а також сформувати навички, які спрямовані на розвиток аналітичного мислення, активізацію мовленнєвої комунікації. Це дає можливість зробити акцент на необхідності та важливості постійної роботи зі спеціальною літературою англійською мовою, організації правильного мовлення в процесі навчання.
Посібник побудований на поступовому ускладненні фахового матеріалу. Правова лексика вводиться тематично і закріплюється в різноманітних вправах.
Навчальний посібник складається з п’ятнадцяти розділів, які базуються на вживанні активної лексики як загальновживаної, так і правової на матеріалі оригінальних текстів англійських авторів та періодики. В розділах посібника використано тематику різних розділів правознавства, а саме: цивільне право, кримінальне право, адміністративне право, морське право тощо. Останній розділ спрямований на розвиток навичок писемного мовлення, вводить основи ділового спілкування, опитування, анкетування, написання автобіографій, тощо, проведення наукових конференцій.
A CAREER IN LAW
1. The study of law differs from country to country, but most law degree programmes include core (compulsory) subjects which all students must take. Which core courses are typical in your country? How long does it take to complete a law degree?
Read the text
A CAREER IN LAW
The study of law is intellectually stimulating and challenging, and can lead to a variety of interesting careers.
In the UK and the USA, law degree programmes usually take three years to complete. In the UK, these programmes typically include core subjects such as criminal law, contract law, tort law, land law, equity and trusts, administrative law and constitutional law. In addition, students are often required to take courses covering skills such as legal writing and legal research.
There is also a variety of optional (elective) courses available. Since many law students go on to become lawyers, students often take courses that will be useful to them during their future careers. Someone wishing to run a small partnership or to work alone as a sole practitioner in a small town may decide to take subjects such as family law, employment law and housing law. Those wishing to work in a large law practice will consider subjects such as company law, commercial law and litigation and arbitration.
Many universities also offer courses on legal practice. Courses like this give students the opportunity to experience the work of a lawyer before deciding on a career in the law. Another way of finding out more about law in practice is to get involved with a voluntary advice centre or law clinic. These clinics offer free legal assistance to the local community and provide a useful introduction to some of the day-to-day work of a lawyer.
For students wishing to work in a commercial practice, knowledge of foreign languages is essential. When law firms hire new recruits, they generally look at four things: education, personality, work experience and language ability. Since English is the language of the international legal community, law firms increasingly expect graduates to have a good command of English.
2. Answer the questions.
1. Which courses do law students in the UK have to take?
2. Which optional courses might a student who wants to work in a big law firm take?
3. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F). If the statement is false, correct it.
1. A course in family law is usually included among the core subjects at law schools in the UK.
2. Some law degree programmes offer courses in some of the important skills that lawyers need in order to do their work, such as legal writing or legal English.
3. Law clinics give law students the opportunity to learn about the legal problems of the medical profession.
4. Today, commercial law firms expect recruits to be completely fluent in English.
4. Discuss these questions with a partner. Look at the sample responses.
1. What type of law firm do you (think you would like to) work in?
I’d like to work as a sole practitioner, as I’d prefer to be my own boss.
I think a big law-firm would be exciting.
2. Which optional courses are you taking / did you take during your studies?
This semester, I'm taking an elective course in environmental law.
I took a course on human rights law when I was in law school.
¨ Reading ________________________________________________________
5.Reading texts in a foreign language often means encountering unfamiliar words. Discuss these questions with a partner.
1. What is the best way to deal with unfamiliar words in a text?
2. Read the following list of strategies and discuss how useful they are. What factors might affect the strategy you use?
· Try to understand the new word with the help of surrounding words.
· Look up every unknown word in a dictionary.
· Ignore the unknown word and read on.
· Look up some new words, ignore others.
· Analyse the unknown word: ask what part of speech it is (a noun or an adjective, for example); if it has a root or a prefix (Latin or French, for example) that may help you understand it; if it has a positive or negative meaning, etc.
6. Quickly read the law course descriptions taken from a university website. Ignore the gaps for now. Do you think this university is in the UK? Why (not)?
First-year course descriptions
Introduction to Law: This course aims to familiarize the student with the study of law; to begin the development of certain basic skills, such as reading, analysis and synthesis of legal decisions, and interpretation of statutes; to discuss fundamental aspects of the legal process, e.g. how courts “make law” and the function of the courts with respect to statutory law.
1)..............................: This course covers the fundamental principles governing the formation, interpretation, performance, and enforcement of contracts. In addition, special attention is given to the requirements of offer and acceptance, consideration, formal requirements, public policy, and the problems of choosing a remedy in case of a breach. Some attention will also be given to the Uniform Commercial Code.
2)..............................: Topics covered include liability for intentional and negligently caused injuries to person and property; strict liability; vicarious liability; ultra-hazardous activities; products liability; nuisance; invasion of privacy; defamation; the impact of insurance and risk distribution upon liability; accident compensation plans; damages; losses.
3)..............................: This course presents the basic concepts of criminal law. Crimes against persons, property, and public administration are covered, with special emphasis placed upon the law of homicide.
Second-year course descriptions
Evidence: This course will explore the rules of evidence and their rationale, including relevancy, hearsay, impeachment, cross-examination, opinions and experts, documents, and privileges.
Criminal Procedure: This course will cover regulation of law enforcement conduct during the investigation of crimes, with special emphasis on constitutional and statutory limitations. Topics include search and seizure, confessions and incriminating statements, electronic surveillance, entrapment, identification procedures, and remedies for improper police conduct.
4)..............................: This course covers the general principles of federal constitutional law, including government authority and its distribution under the constitution; the judicial function in constitutional cases; powers delegated to the national government and the reserved powers of the states in areas of federal authority; intergovernmental relations; rights, privileges, and immunities under the constitution; national citizenship; the contract clause; the federal constitution and the amendments thereto.
5)..............................: This course is designed to acquaint students with the nature of legal research. Students will analyze judicial opinions; apply legal concepts and rules; and learn correct legal citation and use of correct precedent. Special attention is given to the mechanics of legal research, the techniques of writing memoranda, and briefs.
7.Choose the correct title for each course in the catalogue.
1. Criminal law / Crime law
2. Law of the constitution / Constitutional law
3. Contract law / Contracting law
4. Legal research and writing / Legal investigation and writing
5. Liability law / Tort law
8. Read the excerpt again and answer these questions.
1. Which course covers basic skills that students will need during their studies?
2. Which course deals with research and writing skills needed in professional life?
3. Which course teaches students how to cross-examine a witness?
9. Underline three words you do not know. Try to guess their meaning by looking at surrounding words and analysing the words.
10. Which of the courses in the excerpt are/were you required to take in the law degree programme you are/were enrolled in?
Most universities now offer language courses for lawyers, and in some countries these courses are compulsory. Some courses in legal English focus on the study of Anglo-American legal systems and associated terminology. Others offer a more practical introduction to the language skills lawyers will need during their future careers.
You are going to hear a discussion between two law students, Heidi from Germany and Pavel from Russia. They are each spending a semester studying law in England and are discussing the English courses they were required to take as part of the law degree programmes in their respective countries
11. Xð1.1 Listen to the discussion and tick (P) what each speaker says he/she did on his/her legal English course.
Heidi’s course Pavel’s course
(Speaker 1) (Speaker 2)
1. worked on writing skills for lawyers £ £
2. practised legal research skills £ £
3. learned about other legal systems £ £
4. studied terminology £ £
5. gave presentations £ £
6. practised speaking about own legal system £ £
12. Xð1.1 Listen to the conversation again and then discuss with a partner which course (Heidi’s or Pavel’s) most resembles your experience of legal English so far.