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Program Counter Architecture

ALU Components

As noted above, the ALU needs other components as well:

– Registers to store arguments and results.

– Buses to carry data from registers to the ALU and results back to the register unit.

– Two memory access units, with associated buses:

An instruction fetch unit to get instructions from computer memory as needed. This includes a program counter, which always points to the address of the next instruction to be accessed.

A second path to memory to obtain data to be used in the program and to store data back into memory as required.

– A control unit that tells the ALU what to do (covered later).

The program counter (PC) is a register that addresses the instruction in next memory.

Since the PC always points to the “next instruction,” this address must be readily updated.

The usual method is to add 4 the to current address (since the instruction is a 32-bit word and each 32-bit word has an address 4 bytes higher than the last word).

Fig.3.2 The progrm counter architecture

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<== попередня сторінка | наступна сторінка ==>
The ALU or Datapath | ALU Architecture for Processing

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