Новини освіти і науки:
МАРК РЕГНЕРУС ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ: Наскільки відрізняються діти, які виросли в одностатевих союзах

РЕЗОЛЮЦІЯ: Громадського обговорення навчальної програми статевого виховання



Батьківський, громадянський рух в Україні закликає МОН зупинити тотальну сексуалізацію дітей і підлітків

Відкрите звернення Міністру освіти й науки України - Гриневич Лілії Михайлівні

Представництво українського жіноцтва в ООН: низький рівень культури спілкування в соціальних мережах

Гендерна антидискримінаційна експертиза може зробити нас моральними рабами


ВІДКРИТА ЗАЯВА на підтримку позиції Ганни Турчинової та права кожної людини на свободу думки, світогляду та вираження поглядів


Тлумачний словник

Preserving Peace and Security

Promoting peace and security is generally construed as a broad and complex topic. This complexity is partially manifested in terminology, which is often too broad or vague to understand. It creates numerous challenges for multinational communication and for interpreters and translators in particular.

Generally, one can identify three comprehensive categories of military and nonmilitary activities aimed at maintaining international peace and security. They are: operations in support of diplomatic efforts, military operations other than war, and peace operations.

Operations in Support of Diplomatic Efforts[26]

Operations in support of diplomatic effortsare conductedto establish peace and order before, during, and after conflict. These are preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, and peace building.

Preventive diplomacy consists of diplomatic actions taken in advance of a predictable crisis to prevent or limit violence.An example of military support to preventive diplomacy is the preventive deployment operation “ABLE SENTRY”, where US forces deployed in 1993 in support of the UN effort to limit the spread of fighting in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Peacemaking is the process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlement that arranges an end to a dispute and resolves the issues that led to conflict. Military support to the peacemaking process may include provision of military expertise to the peacemaking process, military-to-military relations, security assistance, or other activities to influence the disputing parties to seek a diplomatic settlement.

Peace building consists of postconflict actions, predominately diplomatic, economic, and security-related, that strengthen and rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid a relapse into conflict. Initially, intervening forces may have to assume governing functions and rebuild absent government institutions prior to transitioning to traditional peace building actions. The military force may facilitate demobilization, arms limitation, referenda, national reconciliation, elections, or creation of new governments.


Military Operations Other Than War[27]

According to the US views, military operations other than war (MOOTW) encompass the use of military capabilities across the range of military operations short of war. MOOTW can be applied to complement any combination of the other instruments of national power.

To understand MOOTW, it is useful to understand how they differ from operations in war. Although MOOTW and war may often seem similar in action, MOOTW focus on deterring war and promoting peacewhile war encompasses large-scale, sustained combat operations to achieve national objectives or to protect national interests. MOOTW are more sensitive to political considerationsand often the military may not be the primary player.

MOOTW are initiated by the National Command Authorities and are usually, but not always, conducted outside of the United States. All military personnel should understand the political objectiveand the potential impact of inappropriate actions. Commanders should remain aware of changes not only in the operational situation, but also of changes in political objectives that may warrant a change in military operations.

Types of MOOTW[28]

The main purpose of arms control is to enhance national security. U.S. military personnel may be involved in an arms control treaty, or escorting authorized deliveries of weapons and other materials to preclude loss or unauthorized use of these assets.

Combating terrorism. These measures are both offensive (counterterrorism) and defensive (antiterrorism) in nature. The former typically occurs outside the territory of the United States, while the latter may occur anywhere in the world.

Support tocounterdrug operations includes detection and monitoring, support to cooperative foreign governments, support for drug interdiction, support to drug enforcement agencies, internal drug prevention and C4I support.

The main objective of nation assistance is to assist a host nation (HN) with programs to promote stability, develop sustainability, and establish institutions responsive to the needs of the people. The primary means of providing nation assistance is through security assistanceand foreign internal defense. Security assistance (SA) refers to a group of programs that provides defense articles and services, including training, to foreign countries that further U.S. national security objectives. Foreign internal defense (FID) supports a HN’s fight against lawlessness, subversion, and insurgency.

The purpose of noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO) is to safely and quickly remove civilian noncombatants from an area outside the United States where they are, or may be, threatened.

Civil support operations encompass worldwide humanitarian assistance, military support to civil authorities and military assistance for civil disturbances.

U.S. support to insurgencies can be overt, low visibility, clandestine, or covert. It is provided to an organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict[29]. Support to counterinsurgency is provided to a government in the military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions it undertakes to defeat insurgency. Each support program is conducted as a special activity within the meaning of section 3.4 (h) of Executive Order 12333, 4 December 1981, “U.S. Intelligence Activities,” and is subject to approval by the U.S. Congress.

Plans for MOOTW are prepared in a similar manner as plans for war. Of particular importance in the planning process is the development of a clear definition, understanding, and appreciation for all potential threats. Commanders should always plan to have the right mix of forces available to quickly transition to combat operations or evacuate.


s Answer the questions

1. What measures aimed at maintaining peace and security do you know?

2. What are the main types of operations in support of diplomatic efforts?

3. Can you explain the meaning of the term “mediation”?

4. What is the difference between “peacemaking” and “peace building”?

5. In what manner do MOOTW differ from war?


> Read, decipher and translate abbreviations



N O Translate into Ukrainian

Preserving peace and security; multinational communication; maintaining international peace and security; to establish peace and order; diplomatic actions; to prevent or limit violence; to resolve the issues; provision of military expertise; to seek a diplomatic settlement; to avoid a relapse into conflict; the use of military capabilities; short of war; large-scale combat operations; to encompass sth; to protect national interests; National Command Authorities (NCA); changes in the operational situation; arms control treaty; unauthorized use; detection; support to cooperative foreign governments; command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I); to develop sustainability; to response to the needs of the people; humanitarian assistance; military assistance for civil disturbances; to be subject to approval by the US Congress; to quickly transition to combat operations; the use of military capabilities across the range of military operations short of war; internal drug prevention.


N O Translate into English

Підтримання миру і безпеки; військові і невійськові заходи; миротворчі операції; напередодні, під час та після завершення конфлікту; криза, яку можна передбачити; розгортати війська;військова підтримка миротворчого процесу; зв’язки на рівні військових; урядові установи; відбудовувати відсутні урядові установи; види військових операцій; зосереджуватися на чомусь; довготривалі бойові операції; досягти національних завдань; відігравати головну роль; оперативна обстановка; покращувати стан національної безпеки; санкціоновані поставки зброї; не допускати втрати зброї; спостереження; органи боротьби із незаконним розповсюдженням наркотиків; сприяти стабільності; створювати установи; сприяти досягненню національних завдань; військова підтримка органів цивільної влади; таємний; розуміння та оцінка всіх потенційних загроз; евакуювати щось; залежати від політичних міркувань.

ó N O Translate quickly

Operations in support of diplomatic efforts; превентивна дипломатія; preventive deployment operation; peacemaking; дипломатія; mediation; переговорний процес; peaceful settlement; дипломатичне врегулювання; peace building; заходи після завершення конфлікту; intervening forces; демобілізація; arms limitation; референдум; referenda; національне примирення; military operations other than war; інструменти національної міці; deterring war; сприяння миру; combat operations; політичне завдання; potential impact of inappropriate actions; контроль над озброєннями; combating terrorism; контртероризм; antiterrorism; операції по боротьбі із незаконним розповсюдженням наркотиків; drug interdiction; допомога країні; host nation; “сприяння безпеці”; foreign internal defense; беззаконня; noncombatant evacuation operations; операції на підтримку цивільного населення; support to insurgency; підтримка боротьби із заворушеннями; preventive diplomacy; операції на підтримку дипломатичних зусиль; diplomacy; посередництво; negotiation; мирне врегулювання; diplomatic settlement; відбудова миру; postconflict actions; сили перехідного режиму; demobilization; обмеження озброєнь; referendum; референдуми; national reconciliation; операції невоєнного характеру; instruments of national power; стримування війни; promoting peace; бойові операції; political objectives; потенційний вплив небажаних дій; arms control; боротьба з тероризмом; counterterrorism; антитероризм; counterdrug operations; перехоплення партій наркотиків; nation assistance; приймаюча країна; security assistance; іноземна допомога для забезпечення внутрішніх функцій держави; lawlessness; операції з евакуації цивільного населення; civil support operations; підтримка заворушень; support to counterinsurgency.

A Build up your vocabulary


Читайте також:

  1. Basic Concept of Security and Defense
  2. Fundamentals of Peace Enforcement Operations
  3. Fundamentals of Peace Enforcement Operations
  4. Greenpeace”.
  5. Lesson 1 Basic Concept of Security and Defense
  6. Lesson 1 Basic Concept of Security and Defense
  7. Lesson 4 Collective Security
  8. Lesson 6 Peace operations
  9. Lesson 6 Peace operations
  10. National Security
  11. Preserving Peace and Security

Переглядів: 479

<== попередня сторінка | наступна сторінка ==>
 | The peace – порядок

Не знайшли потрібну інформацію? Скористайтесь пошуком google:


© studopedia.com.ua При використанні або копіюванні матеріалів пряме посилання на сайт обов'язкове.

Генерація сторінки за: 0.002 сек.