CLASSIFICATIONS OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS
BASIC NOTIONS OF THE LECTURE.
Correction of pronunciation mistakes
No matter how pronunciation is taught students will make mistakes in pronunciation of sounds, stress, intonation. In the junior stage it is the teacher who corrects students’ mistakes, because students’ ability to hear is not developed yet, besides, they need good examples to follow. The teacher explains the mistake to the students and shows what should be done to avoid it. At the intermediate and senior stages errors may be corrected both by the teacher and the students themselves. The main ways of correcting errors are:
· The teacher explains, paying attention to the proper position of the organs of speech for producing the sound;
· The teacher pronounces in the right way and the students imitate;
· The teacher demonstrates using hand and arm movements;
· Students listen to the tape-recordings and imitate the speaker.
Questions and topics for discussion
Phraseological units are defined as non-motivated word groups that cannot be freely made up in speech but are reproduced in speech as ready-made units.
This definition proceeds from the assumption that the essential features of phraseological units are stability of lexical components and lack of motivation (idiomaticity).
E.g.: “red tape” – “bureaucratic method” – is semantically non-motivated, that is its meaning cannot be deduced from meanings of its components. It exists as a ready-made linguistic unit which does not allow any variability of its lexical components.
Stability of phraseological unit implies that it exists as a ready-made linguistic unit which does not allow any variability of its lexical components and grammatical structure.
Reproducibility is regular use of phraseological units in speech as single unchangeable collocations.
Idiomaticity is the quality of phraseological units when the meaning of the whole is not deducible from the sum of meanings of the parts.
One of the existing classifications of phraseological units was done by V.V.Vinogradov. Taking into account mainly the degree of idiomaticity he classified phraseological units in 3 groups:
1. Phraseological fusions.
2. Phraseological unities.
3. Phraseological combinations.
Phraseological fusions are completely non-motivated word groups in which the meanings of the components have no connection with meaning of the whole group. Idiomaticity is combined with complete stability of lexical components and grammatical structure of the fusion.
E.g.: “heavy father” – серйозна частина п’єси
“red tape” – бюрократія
“all ales and skittles” – безтурботне життя
“a battle of the books” – вчений диспут
Phraseological unities are partially non-motivated as their meaning can usually be deduced through metaphoric meaning of the whole phraseological unit. Phraseological unities are as a rule marked by a high degree of stability of lexical components.
E.g.: “to show one’s teeth” – погрожувати
“to wash one’s dirty linen in public” – виносити власні сварки на публіку
Phrseological combinations are motivated but they are made up of words possessing specific lexical valency which accounts for a certain degree of stability in such word groups. In phraseological combinations variability of member words is strictly limited.
E.g.: “to bear a grudge” (мати зуб на когось) may be changed into “to bear malice” but not into “to bear a fancy” or “to bear a liking”.
We can name them standardized phrases.
E.g.: to give help, to win a victory, to make a mistake
They may express:
1) attributive relations: acute pain, cold reason, black sheep
2) object relations: to declare war, to take measures
3) subject-predicative relations: extremes meet, time flies
4) adverbial relations: to freeze hard, to snow heavily, to rain fast.
Here also belong some comparisons: as blue as the sky, as black as a crow, as busy as a bee etc.
We also distinguish phraseological expressions – proverbs, sayings and aphoristic familiar quotations.
E.g.: Birds of a feather flock together.
Still water runs deep.
Something is rotten in the state of Denmark (W. Shakespeare).
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread (A. Pope).
Another classification of phraseological units was suggested by N.Amosova. Proceeding from the assumption that individual meaning polysemantic words can be observed in certain context and may be viewed as depending on those contexts, it is argued that phraseological units are also to be defined through specific types of contexts. Free word groups make up variable contexts while the essential feature of phraseological units is a non-variable or fixed context.
Fixed context is context characterized by a specific and unchanging sequence of definite lexical components and peculiar semantic relationship between them.
Units of fixed context are subdivided into