Objectively and subjectively conditioned transformations of lexical units in the process of translation.
Antonymic transformation is defined as rendering SL unit with the help of opposite words and constructions. It is employed for achieving faithfulness in conveying the content or expressiveness, when an affirmative in sense or structure unit is rendered as a negative one but identical in content or vice versa. The main factors predeterming antonimic translation:
a) When in the TL there is no direct equivalent for the sense unit of the SL( in shirt sleeves - без рукавів.)
b) The sentence with words till, until, unless +not are rendered by affirmative statements: (The USA did not enter the was until 1917-Лише в ... вступили )
c) When the sense unit of the SL has two negations which create an affirmation (She was by no means no elegant - Вона була досить елегантною)
d) to achieve a necessary expressiveness and brevity in narration (They thought it wouldn't be safe - Вони подумали, що це небезпечно)
є) to avoid the use of the same structures close to each other in the text.
(That will not be good either for you or for my God-daughter - Це може погано закінчитись і для вас; і для моєї похресниці)
f) When the existing analogy in the TL appears to be antonymic (сталий переклад) -(Authorized personnel only - вхід заборонено).
Transformations of nationally peculiar lexical units become inevitable as a result of differences existing between the ways and means of expression of the same meanings in the SL in the TL . There are three main stylistically distinguished classes of units:
a)stylistically neutral lexis;
b)stylistically evaluative lexis;
c)culturally biased national specific units of lexicon.
a) Among the numerous stylistically neutral simple and compound words are different parts of speech in Eng and in Ukrainian which may be in translation in the TL single words, word-groups and even sentences: answerable -той, / е, а / на що можна відповісти; пополудні -in the afternoon, p.m. They are given in dictionaries and never present any difficulty for the t-r.
b) Diminutives. They have a very poor representation in English but they is a very large quantity of them in Ukrainian. It is difficult to say whether booklet, manikin or hillocks are diminutives or diminutive - evaluatives. They may be diminutive -карлик, горбок, or diminutive evaluative книжечка, брошурка, горбочок)
We have gradation of a diminutive quality in a noun in Ukrainian: ручка, ручечка, рученя, рученяточко, руця. In English with the help of additional adjectives: small head -голівка, голівочка - small/little head.
Only some isolated nouns have corresponding suffixes as daddy -татко, sissy - сестричка , granny.
The pejorative (mostly contemptuous) meanings of a number of Ukrainian augmentative nouns will have the following English outer form expression: вовчице -a big formidable wolf ( a monster of a wolf); дубище -a very thick and tall oak-tree; здоровило -a healthy fellow.
c) When inthe form of words not belonging to regular internationalisms like lord, mister they are mostly transcribed or transliterated and shortly explicated in the TL muffin - маффин, солодка здоба, випечена в чашкоподібній формі з прісного чи сходячого тіста веснянка –vesnyanka (Ukrainian song hailing the coming spring).
The all above-given transformations of lexical units are predetermined not so much by the objective, i.e., national factors, than by the stylistic aims realized by the translator.
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