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ЛІВИЙ МАРКСИЗМ У НОВИХ ПІДРУЧНИКАХ ДЛЯ ШКОЛЯРІВ
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Faithful and equivalent translation.
The term faithful translation is sometimes viewed as an equivalent to the notion equivalent translation. Being quite similar in their general meaning these notions are characterized by some differences at the same time.
Thus, faithful translation (адекватний переклад) is used mainly to denote the highest level of rendering the denotative and connotative meanings of linguistic units, the expressiveness and pragmatic intention of the SL utterance or text with the help of available means of the TL.
The term equivalent translation (еквівалентний)implies mainly the necessity of quantitative and qualitative representation of all the constituents of the SL units in the TL.
For instance: a man in the street – пересічна людина; keep up with the Joneses – бути не гіршим за інших; red blood – відвага; fresh blood – новачок etc.
!Therefore, faithful translation is not always equivalent translation.
5. Pragmatics of translation.
To the users of the language its words are not just indifferent, unemotional labels of objects or ideas. The people develop a certain attitude to the words they use. Some of the words acquire definite implications, they evoke a positive or negative response, and they are associated with certain theories, beliefs, likes or dislikes. In other words, we speak about different connotations (associations) that make up an important part of a word meaning and may produce various impacts on the Receptor.
The communicants involved in interlingual communication speak different languages, but they also belong to different cultures, have different general knowledge, different social and historical background. This fact has a considerable impact on the translator’ strategy since the most truthful rendering of ST contents may sometimes be partially misunderstood by the receptors of the translation or fail to produce a similar effect on them.
Since the pragmatic effect plays an important part in communication, its preservation in translation is the primary concern of the translator, though it is by no means an easy task.
! The pragmatics of the text is part of the contents of the text. It is a meaningful element whose preservation is desirable at any level of equivalence. The pragmatics of the original text should be as understandable to TR as they are to SR.
! An adequate rendering of the message by TR may necessitate expanding or modifying the original message to make it meaningful to the members of a different language community.