State which of the italicized units are phraseologisms and which are free word-combinations. Give proof of your answer.


In the given conversion pairs state the semantic relations between the deverbal substantive and the verb it is derived from.

Model:to leak leak 'a hole in a container or covering through which contents, especially liquid or gas, may accidentally pass'

The semantic relation between the words making up the conversion pair to leak leak is 'the place of the action'.

1) to flirt flirt 'a person who habitually flirts'; 2) to knock -knock 'a sudden short sound caused by a blow, especially on a door to attract attention or gain entry'; 3) to cut cut 'damage from something sharp'; 4) to watch watch 'a film or program considered in terms of its appeal to the public'; 5) to cheat cheat 'a person who behaves dishonestly in order to gain an advantage'; 6) to stand stand 'a place where or object on which someone or something stands, sits, or rests, in particular'; 7) to go go 'an attempt or trial at something'; 8) to like like(s) 'the thing(s) one likes or prefers'; 9) to tear tear 'a hole or split in something caused by it having been pulled apart forcefully'; 10) to wait wait 'a period of waiting'; 11) to forge forge 'a blacksmith's workshop'; 12) to scold scold 'a woman who nags or grumbles constantly'; 13) to read read 'something of the stated kind to read'; 14) to lift lift 'a rise in price or amount'.


1. He asked to warm a glass of juice but they left it rather cold on the table. 2. Instrumental music, oddly enough, left me rather cold. 3. Where do you think you lost your purse. 4. I couldn't stand that noise any longer. I lost my temper. 5. Have a look at the reverse side of the coat. 6. The reverse side of the medal is that we'll have to do it ourselves. 7. Keep the butter in the refrigerator. 8. Keep the eye on the child. 9. He threw some cold water on his face to wake up. 10. I didn't expect that he would throw cold water upon our project. 11. The tourists left the beaten track and saw a lot of interesting places. 12. The author leaves the beaten track and offers a new treatment of the subject.


2. Analyze the structural invariability of the given phraseological units. State cases when various changes (such as componental extension, substitutions, or grammatical changes) are possible (group a) and impossible (group b).

Model:So you say, but anybody who experiments with drugs is riding a tiger/panther.

0 In the phraseological unit to ride a tiger the component tiger cannot be replaced by the word panther without destroying the semantic integrity and meaning of this idiom. This phraseologism belongs to group b).

1. can take it or leave it.' 'So you say, but anybody who experiments with drugs is riding a tiger/panther". 2. It was unbearable. Her behaviour made me/ off the handle/handles. 3. My father hated the idea of me joining the army. He always said it wasn't a suitable occupation for the fair/fairer sex. 4. When I saw the nurse's face, my heart sank into my boots/into my brown boots. 5. Jackson is a hot-tempered man; I wouldn't cross swords/a sword with him, if I were you. 6. His enemy was close behind him, and the bridge over the ravine was rotten and swaying. Caught between the devil and the deep sea/the deep blue sea, he hesitated. 7. We can make our own decisions without you putting/sticking your oar in. 8. Our builder is taking his time/his free time, isn't he? He's been three days on that job already. 9. Politics is meant to be boring, and boring people carry it out more competently than flash Harries/a flash Harry. 10. We must make it a hard and fast/firm rule not to allow any parent to enter a classroom without first speaking to the headmaster. 11.1 could do that with one arm/hand behind my back. 12. But when he learns that officialdom has again reared its head/its ugly head and is planning the destruction of his last home, his fighting spirit returns.



  1. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  2. Arrange the following units into two lexical and two terminological sets. I Give them corresponding names.
  3. Classification of phraseological units and their structural types.
  5. Complete the given statements from the text
  6. Derivational analysis and basic units of derivational system.
  7. Free Word-Groups Versus Phraseological Units Versus Words
  8. Lesson 10 Branches, Services and Units of the US Armed Forces
  9. Objectively and subjectively conditioned transformations of lexical units in the process of translation.
  10. Replace the italicized Irish words with Standard English words from the box.
  11. The category of state

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