МАРК РЕГНЕРУС ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ: Наскільки відрізняються діти, які виросли в одностатевих союзах
РЕЗОЛЮЦІЯ: Громадського обговорення навчальної програми статевого виховання
ЧОМУ ФОНД ОЛЕНИ ПІНЧУК І МОЗ УКРАЇНИ ПРОПАГУЮТЬ "СЕКСУАЛЬНІ УРОКИ"
ЕКЗИСТЕНЦІЙНО-ПСИХОЛОГІЧНІ ОСНОВИ ПОРУШЕННЯ СТАТЕВОЇ ІДЕНТИЧНОСТІ ПІДЛІТКІВ
Батьківський, громадянський рух в Україні закликає МОН зупинити тотальну сексуалізацію дітей і підлітків
Відкрите звернення Міністру освіти й науки України - Гриневич Лілії Михайлівні
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Гендерна антидискримінаційна експертиза може зробити нас моральними рабами
ЛІВИЙ МАРКСИЗМ У НОВИХ ПІДРУЧНИКАХ ДЛЯ ШКОЛЯРІВ
ВІДКРИТА ЗАЯВА на підтримку позиції Ганни Турчинової та права кожної людини на свободу думки, світогляду та вираження поглядів
Air Traffic Service
Exercise 2.1.1 Read and translate the text.
Control of air traffic was almost unknown when ICAO was founded in 1944. Today the air traffic control, flight information and alerting services, which together comprise air traffic services, rank high among the indispensable ground support facilities which ensure the safety and efficient operation throughout the world.
Annex 11 to the ICAO Convention defines air traffic services and specifies the world-wide Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) applicable in the provision of these services.
The world’s airspace is divided into a series of contiguous flight information.
Regions (FIRs) within which air traffic services are provided. In some cases, the flight information regions cover large oceanic areas with relatively low air traffic density, within which only flight information service and alerting service are provided. In other flight information regions, large portions of the airspace are controlled airspace within which air traffic control service is provided in addition to flight information and alerting service.
The prime objective air traffic services, as defined in Annex 11, is to prevent collision between aircraft, whether taxiing on the manoeuvring area, taking-off, landing, en-route or in the holding pattern at destination aerodrome. The Annex also, deals with ways of expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic and providing advice and information for the safe and efficient conduct of flights and alerting service for aircraft in distress. To meet these objectives, ICAO provisions call for the establishment of flight information centres and air traffic control units.
The aircraft fly in accordance with the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) or Visual Flighty Rules (VFR). Under IFR, the aircraft fly from one radio aid to the next or by reference to self-contained airborne navigation equipment from which the pilot can determine the aircraft's position at all times. IFR flights are conducted through all but severe weather conditions, while aircraft flying under VFR must remain clear of clouds .and operate in visibility conditions which will permit the pilot to see and avoid other aircraft. IFR flights are provided with air control service when operating in controlled airspace. When operating in uncontrolled airspace, flight information service, which includes information on known traffic, is provided the pilot is responsible for arranging the flight to avoid other traffic. Control service is normally not provided to VFR flights, unless in specific areas, in which case VFR flights are separated from IFR flights but no separations is provided between VFR flights, unless specifically required by the ATC authority. However, not all aircraft are provided with air traffic services. If an aircraft is operating entirely outside of controlled airspace in an area where a flight plan is not required, the flight may not even be known to air traffic services.
Air traffic control service consists of clearances issued by air traffic control units to achieve longitudinal, vertical or lateral separation between aircraft, in accordance with the provisions set out in Annex 11.
Air Traffic Controllers at control centres in more than 60 countries of the world use the advanced technologies and the commitment to safety for those who fly. As aviation training requires a working knowledge of equipment, which is in a continuous process of innovation and modification, it is necessary to have a dedicated and skillful staff. The continuing changes in equipment and the rapid computerization is being held in many airports of Ukraine.
Aviation safety and efficiency, depends on strict and rigorous professional training. The people selected to look after, and be responsible for the safety of aircraft both on the ground and in the air, must show before acceptance that they have some experience in aviation.
Exercise 2.1.2 Answer the questions.
1. When was ICAO founded?
2. Why was the control of air traffic almost unknown at that time?
3. What does ATS stand for?
4. What does control of air traffic provide?
5. What does Annex 11 to the ICAO Convention define?
6. What is the world’s airspace divide into?
7. What kind of services are large oceanic areas provided with?
8. What is the prime objective of air traffic services?
9. What do ICAO provisions call for?
10. What type of flights do you know?
11. What does IFR stand for?
12. What does VFR stand for?
13. What can you tell about IFR flights?
14. What flight conditions are necessary for VFR flights?
15. What does air traffic control service consist of?
16. Why do ATC controllers use the advanced technologies?
17. Why is it necessary to have a dedicated and skillful staff?
18. What can you tell about the rapid computerization in many airports of Ukraine?
19. What information is an aircraft in the uncontrolled airspace provided with?
20. What does aviation safety depend on?
Exercise 2.1.3 What do the following abbreviations stand for.