Another logical method of organization is CLASSIFICATION: the grouping of items or data according to their similarities and differences. Some data can be classified in many different ways.

Consider the following items:

bread meat lettuce

milk potatoes soup

eggs ice cream pie

How many different methods of classification can be used for these items?

They can be classified according to food value, according to the time of theday at which they are usually eaten, according to price, etc.

When you classify data, choose the kind (kinds) of classification that seems most logical to you.

Exercise 23. Examine the following English words. Divide them into groups. You can have as many groups as you wish. Be prepared to explain why you grouped them as you did.

stupid eat hope

athlete philosophy doctor

nurse thin introduce

think biology mathematics

beautiful economist mother


The data you are given are in no particular order. They are a list, an ENUMERATION. When we ENUMERATE, we merely list; when we CLASSIFY, we impose ORDER on a list.


Structure Vocabulary

The following is a list of some of the structure vocabulary you needwhen you write about classification:


main kinds of primary, secondary contradictory

major kinds of minor opposing

basic kinds of unimportant opposite

fundamental insignificant contrasting

significant similar classify

important dissimilar divide


Also words like:

kinds types attributes

methods sources characteristics

parts regions factors

divisions origins eras

categories bases times

classes qualities

classifications aspects


Exercise 24. Classification (Transportation)

Before we can write a composition of classification, we must:

1) accumulate data;

2) arrange the data into categories according to a logical method;

3) eliminate irrelevancies.


A. Add data to the following list, i.e., ENUMERATE moreexamples.

Methods of Transportation

1.steamship 6.horse 11.

2.sailboat 7.jet plane 12.

3.bicycle 8.bus 13.

4.canoe 9.train 14.

5.automobile 10.propeller plane 15.

. Arrange the categories according to different methods of grouping:

1st possible method of grouping: by kind of power used

2nd possible method of grouping:

3rd possible method of grouping:

C. Write a composition using one method of classification. The following are suggested opening sentences.

1. We can divide transportation into ____major classes according to_____.


2. Transportation falls into ________ types in accordance with _________.


3.If we examine different kinds of transportation, we can see ___________ different levels of _______.

Content vocabulary you may want to use

power land mass transport

efficiency air individual transport

distance ease convenience

long-distance cost technology

passengers maintenance historical

sea replacement development



  1. Classification of accounting documents
  3. Classification of law
  4. Classification of phraseological units and their structural types.
  5. Classification of the natural resources.
  6. Classification of word meaning
  8. Classifications of Parts of Speech.
  10. Classifications of Subordinate Clauses.
  11. Climate and its classification

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Generalization and Specifics | Comparison and Contrast

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