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§ 1.The words of the category of state denote the temporary stateor conditionof persons or things.


But Johnny and Paddy were asleep,the rose-red glow had paled, bats were

flying, and still the bathers had not returned. (Mansfield)

Crearer said, “I’m afraid,General, we have to rely on the appeal of the

leaflet.” (Heym)


§ 2. As regards formthe words of the category of state have the prefix a-: ablaze, afire, aflame, afoot, afraid, asleep, awake, etc.


§ 3. They are mainly used in the function of a predicative.


“He is awake!”Sally cried. (Saxton)

That was all right in the daytime, but while Alice was putting her to bed she

grew suddenly afraid.(Mansfield)

When he got into bed, he was sure he’d never fall asleep,and yet he was dog-

tired. (Wilson).

...but at the first double knock every window in the street became alivewith

female heads. (Dickens)


Words of the category of state may be used as objective predicatives.


She was saying that she intended to leave him entirely aloneagain. (Wilson)


Words of the category of state may be sometimes used as attributes. But unlike adjectives they cannot be placed before the words they modify. As attributes they may be only used in post-position:


The father and mother dolls, who sprawled very stiff as though they had

fainted in the drawing-room, and their two little children asleepupstairs were

really too big for the doll’s house. (Mansfield)


§ 4. Words of the category of state can be modified by adverbs of degree:


Sally, who had been half asleepwith her head on Eddie’s lap, woke up and

began chanting. (Saxton)

Mrs. Gamp’s curtains were drawn close, and Mrs. Gamp was fast asleep.


He immediately came fully awake.(Heym)


Words of the category of state may take prepositional indirect objects.


“You were afraid of the war?”she asked compassionately. (Heym)

...but at the first double knock every window in the street became alive with

female head.(Dickens)

“Merry,” cried that more prudent damsel, “really I am ashamed of you.”



Chapter VII

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  2. A gale of laughter from the middle of the table drowned the rest of Bill’s words. Fred, George, Ron and Mundungus were rolling around in their seats.
  4. A) Match the words on the left with the expressions on the right.
  5. A) Match the words to make word combinations
  6. A) Practise using the words and word combinations in bold type to make other comparisons between some two-four regions of Russia. Write your best sentences down.
  7. A) Read the words describing the qualities required for the legal profession and translate them into Russian. Use a dictionary.
  8. A. Music of the United States
  9. A. Read the text and decide if the following statements are true or false.
  10. Adjective. The category of degrees of comparison.
  11. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
  12. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Give your arguments to support your viewpoint.

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The functions of ordinal numerals in a sentence. | THE INDEFINITE FORM

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