Semantic trends in grammar.

After Chomsky with his idea deep and surface structures most linguistic started their analysis of sentence too. A lot of methods were introduced, but they all aimed at analysis of grammatical meaning. They can be united under in general term- semantic case grammar.

Case grammar was created by Chomskys pupil Charles Fillmore. Who shared Chomskys ideas about two structures, but who went further in the analysis of meaning. Fillmore began his analysis with the verb, he called the predicate- a semantic center of the sentence. A verb a potential sentence.

If we know the verb, can recollect all possible models of sentences with this verb. According to Fillmore each verb has a definite number of case roles ( ). A case role denotes semantic relations that exist between the verb and other sentence parts

All the words in the sentence are called arguments. In every language verbs require different number of case roles. So verbs are divided into one- place verbs, two -place and three-place.

1)A one-place means just enough to connect with one argument - one-place But in English to tell is three place, Intensitive verbs belong to one-place type.- . He thinks

2) Two place verbs are very common in all languages and they can be used in passive-

Only obligatory relations are taken into consideration. .

Charles Fillmore singled out a list of case roles, that are universal for all languages. And it shows the deep structure of the sentence as well as transformational analysis.

case roles
A-Agent pos- pessessor
I-instrument Char- character
E- experience Adr- addressee
P-patient N- nominzer
F-factitive S- source
L-locative G- goal


A- The doer of the action- . Hereads.


I-the object with the help of which the action performed. He opened the door with the key.

E- anyment () reciepient of object. He gave me a book.

P-inanyment () reciepient of action. To read the book.

F- an object which appears as a result of the action. He created a piece of music

L-where the action takes place. Chicago is windy in winter.

T- when the action takes place. Summer is my favorite season.

Pos- a person who possesses smth.

Char-the question isdifficult

Adr-to whom smth is address.

N-when we name smth.He is my boss.

S-he put out the tea from thekettle


  1. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
  2. Divergences in the semantic structure of words
  4. Some Alkali Metals Subgroup Trends
  5. The classification of phraseological units based on the semantic principle.
  6. The logical classification of semantic change
  7. The logical classification of semantic change.
  8. The psychological classification of semantic change
  9. The socio-linguistic classification of semantic change
  11. Translation of monosemantic words

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