B) Skim the text and divide it into the logical parts. Entitle them.


Russia belongs to the continental legal system, and a written law is the main legal source. So, the supreme law in Russia is the Constitution. Other major legal sources include federal constitutional laws and federal laws. Any law cannot contradictthe Constitution.

The Russian court system is composed of three independent parts. They are

(1) the Courts of General Jurisdiction;

(2) the Commercial (Arbitrazh) Courts;

(3) the Russian Federation Constitutional Court.

The Courts of General Jurisdiction include Justices of the peace, District courts, Regional courts and the Supreme Court.

Justices of the peace resolvesmall claims at the local level.

District (rayon) courts function as courts of first instance and courts of appeals for decisions of justices of the peace. These courts make initial decisions in the majority of criminal and civil cases.

Regional (oblast) courts serve as trial courts in more serious crimes and civil matters, and as appellate courts reviewing district courts judgments.

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body within the courts of general jurisdiction. It hears civil, administrative, criminal, and other cases by way of supervision and for newly discovered circumstances. The Supreme Court may issue explanations on questions concerning judicial practice.

The military courts are included into the system of courts of general jurisdiction. They include garrison, district (navy) courts and the Military Chamber of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.

The Commercial Courts adjudicate commercial and economic disputes between business entities. These courts are organized at the level of constituent components of the Russian Federation.

The RF Constitutional Court adjudicates matters governed by the RF Constitution. Rulingsof the Constitutional Court are binding and final. Some subjects of the Russian Federation have their own "subject" constitutional courts (14 courts) and also charter courts (4 courts).


Exercise 4


  1. Arrange the following units into two lexical and two terminological sets. I Give them corresponding names.
  2. Association for Psychological Type (APT).
  4. Classification of phraseological units and their structural types.
  6. Contribution of Ukrainian linguists to lexicological studies.
  7. Different phonological schools and their concept of phoneme
  8. Divide into pairs and tell each other about yourself. Fill in the chart, using the information about your partner. If necessary ask questions.
  9. Divide the text into logical parts.
  10. Divide the text into logical parts.
  11. Divide the text into logical parts.

: 436

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E.g. The Appellate Committee of the House of Lords was independent, effective, inexpensive and was regarded as one of the finest courts in the world. | Find Participle I and Participle II in the text. Translate sentences with them.

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