There are dichotomic and trichotomic classifications of sentences. In a dichotomic classification we see a simple ( one axis) sentence and a composite sentence.

The trichotomic classification remains the prevalent scheme of the structural classifications of sentences in all linguistic schools (the simple sentence, the compound sentence, the complex sentence with structural variations). Descriptivists introduced the terms a single free utterance (minimal and expanded)( I want a cat), a duplication (or a multiplication) of the pattern (He was young, the weather was beautiful, and Europe was at war) M. Helprin. A Soldier of the Great War. P.178), a sequence with included utterances ( We dont know where we ll be tomorrow).

A composite sentence is a polypredicative structure based on coordination (parataxis), subordination (hypertaxis) or specification (explication).

Composite sentences based on coordination are called compound sentences, while sentences based on subordination are called complex sentences..

Composite sentences based on specification (explication) carry two parts which are separated by a colon, the second part specifying the first ( : . Real grief is ugly: the business of an actor is to represent it not only with truth but with beauty. Women in their nature are giantesses: they will break through everything and go on with their own lives).

The nature of composite sentences with specification is debated. It is not clear whether it is a variety of complex sentences or an independent syntactic connection along with coordination and subordination.A compound sentence can be complicated by subordination, likewise complex sentence can be complicated by coordination:All that I ask of you in return is that you will be a true lover, for Love is wiser than Philosophy, though he is wise, and mightier than Power, though he is mighty (It is a fusion of an allegory with a personified metaphor)

In English subordination domineers over coordination, while in Russian coordination domineers over subordination, be it a simple or a composite sentence.



  1. A) Practise using the words and word combinations in bold type to make other comparisons between some two-four regions of Russia. Write your best sentences down.
  2. A. You will hear a manager interviewing a person for a job. Listen out for these verbs, and then use them to complete sentences 1-5.
  3. And write your own sentences with the same words and phrases.
  4. Are the following sentences true or false? If false, say why.
  5. Are the following statements true or false? Correct the false sentences.
  6. Are the sentences true or false?
  7. Ask all the possible questions to the following sentences
  8. B) Find 5 sentences in the text with the given word-combinations.
  9. B) Make up sentences with the word-groups you have translated.
  10. B) Use some of the word combinations from the box and make 5 sentences to describe the trial procedure.
  11. B. Complex Sentence

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Debated Problems within a Simple Sentence | I. The General Notion of a Complex Sentence.

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