B) Use some of the word combinations from the box and make 5 sentences to describe the trial procedure.


Exercise 6

a) Match the words or word-combinations to their explanations.

1. lawyers a. to have a legal right
2. to prove b. barristers or solicitors
3. parties c. to give evidence in court
4. to be entitled d. to establish the truth
5. to testify e. the information used in court to prove something
6. evidence f. legally acceptable
7. valid g. directions to a jury
8. instructions h. people involved in a litigation

B) Fill in the gaps with the words from exercise 6 a).

1. He could not against his own wife.

2. The .. against him was purely circumstantial.

3. The court decision may not satisfy either

4. Prosecution and defense .are expected to deliver closing arguments next week.



What happens during the trial

Pre-reading task: Read the text and match the paragraphs with their headings.

1. Presentation of evidence

2. The instructions

3. Opening statements

4. Jury deliberation.

5. Closing arguments

The usual order of the events of the trial is the following:

Step 1. Selection of the jury.

Step 2. (1) .. The lawyers for each side discuss their views of the case and present a general picture of what they intend to proveabout thecase.

Step 3(2).. . All parties are entitled to present evidence. The testimony of witnesseswho testifyat trial is evidence. Evidence may also take the form of physical exhibits, such as a gun or a photograph.

During thetrial the lawyers may make objections to evidence presented by the other side or to questions asked by the other lawyer. If the objection is valid, the judge sustains the objection. If the objection is not valid, the judge overrules the objection. These rulingsdo not reflect the judges opinion of the case.

The duty of the jury is to decide the importance of evidenceor testimonyallowed by the judge.

Step 4 (3).. The judge instructs the juryon the laws that are to guide the juryin their deliberations on a verdict.

Step 5(4). The lawyers in the closing arguments summarize the case from their point of view. They discuss the evidence or comment on the credibility of the witnesses.

Step 6(5) The jury retires to the jury room and elects the foreman. When averdict has been reached, the foreman signs it and informs the bailiff. The jury returns to the courtroom and the foreman presents the verdict. The judge discharges the jury from the case and pronounces the sentence.


Exercise 7

Find the derivatives of these words in the text.

to defend, to prosecute, to deliberate, to object, to present, to select, credible

Exercise 8


  1. A) Match the words to make word combinations
  2. A) Practise using the words and word combinations in bold type to make other comparisons between some two-four regions of Russia. Write your best sentences down.
  3. A. The adjectives below can be used to describe inventions or new ideas. Which have a positive meaning? Which have a negative meaning?
  4. A. You will hear a manager interviewing a person for a job. Listen out for these verbs, and then use them to complete sentences 1-5.
  6. And write your own sentences with the same words and phrases.
  7. Are the following sentences true or false? If false, say why.
  8. Are the following statements true or false? Correct the false sentences.
  9. Are the sentences true or false?
  10. Ask all the possible questions to the following sentences
  11. B) Find 5 sentences in the text with the given word-combinations.
  12. B) Make up sentences with the word-groups you have translated.

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GLOSSARY | Find words in the text which mean the following.

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