The story of graffiti tells us a lot about social history, the hip-hop movement and artists in the USA.

Unit 14. Graffiti and my attitude to it

Web Design

Advertising Design

Unit 13. Advertising and Web Design

Ex. 1. :

One field in which there is a great demand for creative art solutions is advertising design. This is an area of graphic art whose goal is to help inform, sell, or promote products or services. Figure 131shows an example of a work done in this field. Did you notice the boxed M that forms the tire tracks and the

cars license plate? This is the advertisers logo. Short for logotype, a logo is a special image representing a business, group, or product. Like publishing designers, advertising designers are concerned with layout. Some advertising designers work on newspaper or magazine ads. Others design commercials for television. The success of their work is measured by the impact the message has on the viewer. Can you think of an advertisement that has left an impression on you?


(figure 131)Mary Baum. Maritz Automotive Research Group brochure. 1998.

(Figure 122)- Web page for Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.

Another technological development that has impacted graphic design is the Internet. The arrival in the late 1980s of the World Wide Web created a new field called Web design. Like other graphic designers, Web designers are artists who work with text and pictures to create Web sites. Unlike other graphic designers,

Web designers often use computer code in their creations. This enables the user to click on links that lead to another page or Web site. One commonly used code is HTML, short for hypertext markup language. Figure 122shows a

page from a Web site. Can you find a logo appearing on this Web site.

Ex.2. :

1. Think of a recent advertisement youve seen in a newspaper or magazine. How is it similar to this image?

2. How does it differ?

Ex.3. - .


Ex.4. :

1. , .

2. , .

3. , .

4. , .

5. , .


Ex.5. Web . ( 15 ).


1. .

2. Web ?

3. ?

Ex. 1. :

1. Are "graffiti" a piece of art or an act of vandalism?

2. What can graffiti tell people?

Ex. 2. :


Graffiti is nothing new. The concept is ancient. During the Second World War the phrase 'Kilroy was here' appeared in a variety of places and countries. In 1969 one person made graffiti famous and inspired people to start 'tagging' (writing their nickname in an artistic way). That person was a Greek teenager named Demetrius who lived on 183rd Street in New York. His nickname was Taki so his tag became TAKI 183. He then wrote it everywhere and people copied him. When buses and the subway stopped in the main station in New York, dozens of writers would write their name on it. But it wasn't simply how many times people could write their name that was important but also the style they did it with.

Graffiti became a way of life the adrenaline fear of being caught, standing in dangerous places while you graffiti, stealing the paint and creating something they were proud of. Graffiti style was massively influenced by the hip-hop culture that had started in the Bronx in the sixties. Hip-hop with its rapping, break dancing, attitude and graffiti became a way to show anger and humor. The area and its inhabitants' lives were dominated by crime, drugs, gangs and unemployment. Street gangs began to write the name of their gang on walls in order to mark territorial boundaries.

Soon graffiti was spreading across America. In some cases graffiti was literally travelling at 100 miles an hour on trains. The reason railroad and subway trains were so popular for graffiti was so that it could be seen by so many people, from the poorest to the richest neighborhoods.

Train companies invested in special cleaning chemicals so that graffiti could be removed quickly. However one graffiti artist in particular was not deterred Lee Quinones decided if he couldn't paint trains, he'd paint his graffiti on handball courts instead.

No graffiti artists had ever been offered money for their work but one day Fred Brathwaite, a graffiti artist himself, offered Qinnones money for his murals.

Quinones and Braith-waite formed a graffiti mural group. Brathwaite painted a mural on a subway train as a tribute to Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup cans picture. Soon wealthy gallery owners were noticing the graffiti artists' work. Brathwaite also teamed up with well-respected artist Keith Hating (died in 1990) who began doing a lot of his own subway graffiti with chalk. People liked it so much, the subway companies didn't clean it off. Another graffiti artist and Puerto Rican friend of Haring named Jean-Michel Basquiat began to find fame too. Basquiat used to spray messages commenting on religion.

Many graffiti artists from the 1980s became rich. They were criticized for this by others who said that their motivation for graffiti shouldn't be money and that the whole point of graffiti is its 'underground' style. There are also hundreds of international graffiti events for artists now.

These events promote unity between graffiti artists who are often rivals. Political graffiti and stencil graffiti are popular at the moment. 'An eye for an eye leaves the whole world blind' was written on many buildings in New York, as a protest against America's attacks on Afghanistan.

Many states in the USA and different countries would like to stop graffiti. In Pittsburgh USA, there is a proposed law to ban the sale of marker pens to people under 18. Other countries are very harsh.

Singapore has just one wall where graffiti can be written (even then, some of it is censored). The city has a caning-for-graffiti rule. In 1994 American teenager Michael Fay spray painted a car and was sentenced to a flogging.

Ex. 3. :


Do graffiti contribute to the beauty of architecture of the city?

Ex. 4. :

1.Graffiti became a way of life.

2.No graffiti artists had ever been offered money for their work.

3.Soon graffiti was spreading across America.


Ex.5. ( 18-20 ).


1. ?

2. ?

Unit 15.


  1. From the History of Note-Taking
  4. Read the text about Parliamentary monarchy. Guess the meaning of underlined words.
  5. Read the texts about the British Queen for more information about Great Britain.
  6. Subject and aims of the course A History of the English Language.
  7. The story of graffiti tells us a lot about social history, the hip-hop movement and artists in the USA.
  8. Translation competence and its acquisition or concepts and misconceptions about translator training
  9. (. Social mmunication) ' .

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