Subject and aims of the course «A History of the English Language».
Lecture 1. Periodisation of English.
де Г – це авансовані грошові кошти (статутний фонд підприємства);.
Т - придбані на ринку засоби виробництва (ЗВ) та робоча сила (РС);
В - виробництво нової продукції або послуг (створення нової споживної вартості; створення вартості, більшої за авансовану);
Т' - готова до реалізації продукція;
Г' - грошова виручка від реалізації продукції.
Оборот капіталу (фондів) – безперервне повторення процесу кругообороту. Час обороту починається від моменту авансування фондів у грошовій формі і до моменту повернення їх у тій же формі.
Швидкість обороту визначається кількістю оборотів за рік та тривалістю одного обороту в днях.
В процесі обороту капітал розподіляється на основний і оборотний.
Основні виробничі фонди – частина виробничих фондів (засоби праці - будівлі, споруди, машини, обладнання, тощо), які беруть участь у виробництві тривалий час, не втрачають при цьому натуральної форми і переносять свою вартість на створювану продукцію поступово, частинами, в міру фізичного зносу.
Оборотні виробничі фонди - частина виробничих фондів (предмети праці - сировина, паливо, енергія), які переносять свою вартість на продукт одразу, за один цикл. До оборотних виробничих фондів відноситься і фонд заробітної плати.
Фізичний знос основних виробничих фондів (капіталу) – втрати споживчої вартості засобів праці в процесі їх використання.
Моральний знос основних виробничих фондів (капіталу) – знецінення фондів (капіталу), обумовлене здешевленням виробництва засобів праці в результаті зростання продуктивності праці або внаслідок створення більш досконалих засобів праці.
Амортизація – процес поступового перенесення вартості засобів праці по мірі їх зносу на продукцію, що виробляється.
Амортизаційний фонд – фонд повернення основних виробничих фондів (капіталу), що виникає в результаті перенесення вартості засобів праці на створювані товари і повернення його до власника в грошовій формі після реалізації товарів. Повернення основних виробничих фондів у формі реновації або капітального ремонту.
Норма амортизації – відношення амортизаційних відрахувань до вартості основних фондів.
Час обороту дорівнює сумі часу виробництва та часу обігу.
Час виробництва дорівнює сумі робочого періоду, часу дії автоматичних сил і сил природи, часу перебування у виробничих запасах та часу перерв.
Час обігу дорівнює сумі часу купівлі та часу продажу.
2. Internal and external factors of language evolution.
3. Synchronic and diachronic approaches to the history of language.
4. Indo-European and Germanic Influence on the English Language.
5. Periodisation of English. Survey of periods.
Subject and aims of the course «A History of the English Language»
The course History of English is intended for the 3rd year students of English and designed for 1 semester with 4 hours per week for 19 weeks (1 Lecture and 1 seminar per week), including a final examination. By the end of the course the students are supposed to have a general idea of the historical development of the English language; to read and translate Old, Middle, New English texts; to make phonological, grammatical, syntactic and etymological analysis of the texts.
Subject of the course is the historical development of the English language and its subsystems: phonetics and spelling, grammar, lexis and also the development of English-speaking communities. It’s recognised that every living language changes through time, it can never be absolutely static, it develops with the speech community, with the people who speak it. The purpose of our subject is a systemic study of these changes from the earliest times to the present day.
Aims of the History of English – to trace the linguistic forms back to a distant past and explain them from the angle of their evolution – historically.
Internal and external factors of language evolution
The scholars think that while studying the history of a language we deal with the changes at different linguistic levels – the phonological, lexical, morphological, syntactic levels. All of them constitute a language system, its internal structure. The development of different elements of these levels is called the internal development, or internal history (linguistic) as opposed to the external development or history (extralinguistic). The latter deals with the history of the speech community: the structure of society, the migration of tribes, economic and political events, the growth of culture and literature, contacts with other languages.
Which changes are most important? Modern scholars think that external factors are of no concern to linguistic history. They believe that the main causes which produce linguistic changes are internal. The most general causes of language evolution are found in the tendencies to improve the language technique.
E.g., the language system tends towards simplicity. This tendency – a simplifying one - is displayed in numerous assimilative and simplifying phonetic changes: the consonant cluster [kn] in know and knee was simplified to [n]; [t] was missed out in often and listen.
Another internal tendency is connected with the previous one and can be called a stabilizing tendency. This tendency is opposite to the first because it prevents any language system from changes. E.g. English has retained many words and inflections expressing the most important notions – personal pronouns, nouns, adjectives, the suffix –d to form the Past tense and so on.
The other scholars, e.g. sociologists in linguistics (Vendryes, Meillet, The Prague school of linguists) attach greater importance to changes of speech in social groups believing that linguistic changes are caused by social conditions and events in external history. They believe that language changes because of migrations and mixtures of people, contacts with other people, the progress of culture and literature, and also because of many psychological and physiological factors. E.g. the psychological theory by Jacob Grimm explaining the changes in the consonant system of Germanic tribes. The whole system of consonants changed because people imitated the speech of the leaders of the ancient tribes who articulated sounds with energy and great tension.
Both internal and external factors that influence any language are important.
can, may, will – take no s in the 3 person sg present.
knight – a boy.
Synchronic and diachronic approaches to the history of language
Indo-European and Germanic Influence on the English Language
English is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. This broad family includes most of the European languages spoken today. The Indo-European family includes several major branches: Latin and the modern Romance languages; the Germanic, the Indo-Iranian, the Slavic, the Baltic, lhe Celtic, Greek and many other languages.
The influence of the original Indo-European language, designated proto-Indo-European, can be seen today. The word for father, for example, is vater in German, pater in Latin, and pitr in Sanskrit. These words are all cognates, similar words in different languages that share the same root.
Of these branches of the Indo-European family, two are of paramount importance, the Germanic and the Romance.
English is in the Germanic group of languages. This group began as a common language in the Elbe river region about 3,000 years ago. Around the second century BC, this Common Germanic language split into three distinct sub-groups: East Germanic, North Germanic and West Germanic languages.
The peculiarities of English phonetics, lexis, grammar and syntax are determined by the Indo-European languages and West-Germanic languages. Many words of Indo-European origin penetrated English, but the phonological system of English is mainly Germanic.
Periodisation of English. Survey of periods
East Germanic was spoken by peoples who migrated back to southeastern Europe. No East Germanic language is spoken today, and the only written language that survives is Gothic. North Germanic evolved into the modern Scandinavian languages of Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic.
West Germanic is the ancestor of modern German, Dutch, Flemish, Frisian, and English.
Оld English period begins in 5 hundred and ends in 11 hundred. In the fifth and sixth centuries AD West Germanic invaders from Jutland and southern Denmark: the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, began populating the British Isles. They spoke a mutually intelligible language, similar to modern Frisian that is called Old English.
Three major dialects of Old English emerged, Northumbrian in the north of England, Mercian in the Midlands, and West Saxon in the south and west.
These invaders pushed the original, Celtic-speaking inhabitants out of what is now England into Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, and Ireland, leaving behind a few Celtic words. These Celtic languages survive today in Gaelic languages of Scotland, Ireland and in Wales.
Also influencing English at this time were the Vikings. Norse invasions, beginning around eight hundred and fifty, brought many North Germanic words into the language, particularly in the north of England. An example is the word dream, which had meant 'joy' until the Vikings imparted its current meaning on it from the Scandinavian cognate draumr.
The majority of words in modern English come from foreign, not Old English roots. In fact, only about one sixth of the known Old English words have descendants surviving today. But this is deceptive; Old English is much more important. About half of the most commonly used words in modern English have Old English roots. Words like be, water, and strong, for example, derive from Old English roots.
Old English, whose best known surviving example is the poem Beowulf, lasted until about 11 hundred. This last date is rather arbitrary, but most scholars choose it because it is shortly after the most important event in the development of the English language, the Norman Conquest.
William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England and the Anglo-Saxons in 1066. The new overlords spoke a dialect of Old French known as Anglo-Norman.
The influence of the Normans can be illustrated by looking at two words, beef and cow. Beef, commonly eaten by the aristocracy, derives from the Anglo-Norman, while the Anglo-Saxon commoners, who tended the cattle, retained the Germanic cow. Many legal terms, such as indict, jury, and verdict have Anglo-Norman roots because the Normans ran the courts. This split, where words commonly used by the aristocracy have Romanic roots and words frequently used by the Anglo-Saxon commoners have Germanic roots, can be seen in many instances.
Sometimes French words replaced Old English words; crime replaced firen and uncle replaced eam. Other times, French and Old English components combined to form a new word, as the French gentle and the Germanic man formed gentleman. Other times, two different words with roughly the same meaning survive into modern English. Thus we have the Germanic doom and the French judgment, or wish and desire.
In 1204 (twelve o' four), King John lost the province of Normandy to the King of France. This began a process where the Norman nobles of England became increasingly estranged from their French cousins. England became the chief concern of the nobility, rather than their estates in France, and consequently the nobility adopted a modified English as their native tongue.
About 150 (1 hundred and fifty) years later, the Black Death killed about one third of the English population. The laboring and merchant classes grew in economic and social importance, and along with them English increased in importance compared to Anglo-Norman. This mixture of the two languages came to be known as Middle English. The most famous example of Middle English is Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Unlike Old English, Middle English can be read, although with difficulty, by modern English-speaking people.
By 1362 (thirteen sixty two), the linguistic division between the nobility and the commoners was over. In that year, the Statute of Pleading was adopted, which made English the language of the courts and it began to be used in Parliament. The Middle English period came to a close around 1500 (fifteen hundred) with the rise of Modern English.
Early Modern English period begins in 1500 (fifteen hundred). The next wave of innovation in English came with the Renaissance. The revival of classical scholarship brought many classical Latin and Greek words into the language. These borrowings were deliberate and many bemoaned the adoption of these terms, but many survive to this day. Shakespeare's character in Loves Labor Lost is a satire of a schoolmaster who is too fond of Latinisms.
Shakespeare probably had more influence on the English language than any other individual. He coined some 2,000 words and countless catch-phrases are his. The famous playwriter coming at the beginning of the modern era, defined the language like no other.
Two other major factors influenced the language and served to separate Middle and Modern English. The first was the Great Vowel Shift. This was a change in pronunciation that began around 1400 (fourteen hundred). While modern English speakers can read Chaucer with some difficulty, Chaucer's pronunciation would have been completely unintelligible to the modern ear. Shakespeare, on the other hand, would be understandable.
Vowel sounds began to be made further to the front of the mouth and the letter "e" at the end of words became silent. Chaucer's Lyf became the modern life. In Middle English name was pronounced "nam-a," five was pronounced "feef," and down was pronounced "doon." In linguistic terms, the shift was rather sudden, the major changes occurring within a century. The shift is still not over, however, and vowel sounds are still shortening although the change has become more gradual.
The last major factor was the advent of the printing press. William Caxton brought the printing press to England in 1476 (fourteen seventy six). Books became cheaper and as a result, literacy became more common. Publishing for the masses became a profitable enterprise, and works in English, as opposed to Latin, became more common. Finally, the printing press brought standardization to English. The dialect of London, where most publishing houses were located, became the standard. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the first English dictionary was published in 1604 (sixteen o’ four).
The principal distinction between early- and late-modern English is vocabulary. Pronunciation, grammar, and spelling are largely the same, but Late-Modern English has many more words. These words are the result of two historical factors. The first is the Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society. This necessitated new words for things and ideas that had not previously existed. The second was the British Empire. At its height, Britain ruled one quarter of the earth's surface, and English adopted many foreign words and made them its own.
The industrial and scientific revolutions created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries. For this, English relied heavily on Latin and Greek. Words like oxygen, protein, nuclear, and vaccine did not exist in the classical languages, but they were created from Latin and Greek roots. Such neologisms were not exclusively created from classical roots - English roots were used for such terms as horsepower, airplane, and typewriter.
This burst of neologisms continues today, most visible in the field of electronics and computers.
The rise of the British Empire and the growth of global trade served not only to introduce English to the world, but to introduce words into English. Hindi, and the other languages of the Indian subcontinent, provided many words, such as pundit, shampoo, pajamas, and juggernaut. Virtually every language on Earth has contributed to the development of English, from Finnish (sauna) and Japanese (tycoon) to the vast contributions of French and Latin.
The most significant linguistic consequence of the British Empire was the creation and spread of American English. The American dialect has been a major contributor to the language, and is on the path to overtake British English as the standard.
In certain respects, American English is closer to the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is. Some "Americanisms" that the British decry are actually originally British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost at home (e.g., fall as a synonym for autumn, trash for rubbish, and loan instead of lend).
The rise of the United States as a superpower and the decline of Britain as an international influence may mean that American English will become the standard. Today British English remains the standard, but the American dialect is making a formidable challenge. English is the language of aviation and air traffic, it has supplanted French as the language of diplomacy largely because of American influence. American trade and commerce dominates the world.
But above all is Hollywood. American films and television programs are seen the world over. There is a tendency that American English is to supplant British English as the mother tongue.
A Chronology of the English Language. 55 BC Roman invasion of Britain under Julius Caesar. 43 AD Roman invasion and occupation under Emperor Claudius. Beginning of Roman rule of Britain. 436 Roman withdrawal from Britain complete. 449 Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain begins. 450-480 Earliest Old English inscriptions date from this period. 597 St. Augustine arrives in Britain. Beginning of Christian conversion. 731 The Venerable Bede publishes The Ecclesiastical History of the English People in Latin. 792 Viking raids and settlements begin. 865 The Danes occupy Northumbria. 871 Alfred becomes king of Wessex. He has Latin works translated into English and begins practice of English prose. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is begun. 911 Charles II of France grants Normandy to the Viking chief Hrolf the Ganger. The beginning of Norman French. c. 1000 The oldest surviving manuscript of Beowulf dates from this period.
Lecture 2. The Early inhabitants of Britain.
1. First men on the territory of England
2. The Celts
3. The Romans in Britain
4. The Germanic invaders
5. The Vikings in Britain
Nobody can tell exactly when the first men appeared on the territory of Britain. The very oldest things we can find in this country are some rough stone tools. Wild animals and wild men could walk everywhere: there were no English Channel or Irish Sea. The Cave Men lived after those men and they left us their drawings of animals they saw before them: the great long haired mammoth, the reindeer, the oxen. Many centuries have passed since then, the ground sank in some places and rose in others. Thus the North Sea, The English Channel and the Irish Sea were formed. After this many different tribes appeared in this country, which became a large island with a group of small islands called the British Isles.
The first inhabitants who lived there 3.000 years ago are believed to be Iberians, hunters of the Old Stone Age. They came here from the Continent, perhaps from the modern Georgia (or Spain). We can still see in many parts of the country the long and round grave-mounds called barrows. Soon after 2.000 B.C. a new race entered the country, the Beaker people. By the end of the Stone Age the Beaker people were farmers and metal was already being used. The Iberians and the Beaker men were closely related in culture, they met and fused in the Wiltshire area which is the focus of all pre-Celtic civilisation in Britain. The greatest material monument of the ancient population of the British Isles is Stonehenge – a monumental stone circle.
Soon after 700 B.C. the first wave of Celtic invaders entered Britain. These tribes were called Britons and Gaels. These were the Britons who gave their name to the island. The new invaders arrived from modern France and later they blended with the Iberians and the Beaker Men.
Celts were divided into 30 or 40 tribes, each had a little king who commanded this tribe. They had the Religion of the Druids, who built great temples and altars, the remains of some of them we can see now. The basic unit of the Celtic tribe was the kinship group. All those people spoke various Celtic languages. Celtic languages are divided into two main groups: the Gallo-Breton and the Gaelic. The Gallo-Breton group comprises 1. Gallic, which was spoken in Gael (modern France), and 2. British. British is represented by Welsh (or Cymry) in Wales, Cornish was spoken in Cornwall (it became extinct in the 18th century), and Breton was spoken in Brittany. The Gaelic group comprises 1. Irish, 2. Scots, so-called Erse, and 3. Manx, which is spoken on the isle of Man.
In 55 B.C. the Romans under Julius Caesar first landed in Britain. He wanted to subdue the Gaels, but had not much cavalry as to pursue them. So he returned back to Gaul but in the following year came back. After some time the Romans could send enough soldiers to subdue all the country. Permanent conquest of Britain began in 43 A.D., under the emperor Claudius.
The Romans subdued the Britons, and colonized the country, establishing a great number of military camps, which eventually developed into English cities. In 84 A.D. the Romans built a line of forts between the rivers Clyde and Fort to protect the southern parts from the wild Caledonians. In 124 A.D. the Emperor Hadrian built a double wall between the rivers Tyne and Solway. During this period Britain became a Roman province. This colonization had a profound effect on the country. The Latin language superseded the Celtic dialects in townships. In the 4th century, when Christianity was introduced in the Roman Empire, it also spread among the Britons. London rose and became an important city in Roman times. For about 4 hundred years Britain was part of the Roman Empire, up to the early 5th century. In 410 Roman legions were recalled from Britain to defend Italy from the advancing Goths. The Britons had to defend themselves against Picts and Scots. The wild barbarians burnt all they could not carry away to the hills. Britons ran away to the mountains in the west.
In great despair the Britons called to the German tribes known as Jutes. Their neighbours – the Saxons and the Angles came too. The Jutes settled in Kent, the Saxons in Sussex, Essex, and Wessex, and the Angles along the eastern coast. It was the migration of a whole people, bringing its language and customs.
A Celtic historian Gildas described the horrible devastation of the country. Teutons killed and enslaved the Britons who fled to Cornwall, Wales and in Brittany, in France. Gradually the Germanic conquerors and the surviving Celts blended into a single people. The Scottish Highlands, where neither Romans nor Teutons had penetrated, were inhabited by Picts and Scots. The Scots language, belonging to the Celtic group, has survived up to our days. Ireland also remained Celtic: the first attempts at conquering it were made in the 12th century.
Since the settlement of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain the ties of their language with the continent were broken, and in its further development it went its own ways. So in the 5th century the history of the English language begins.
The 7th century saw the establishment of 7 kingdoms: Essex (it was established by East Saxons), Sussex (by South Saxons), Wessex (by West Saxons), Mercia, Northumbria, East Anglia (the kingdoms of Angles) and Kent (the kingdom of Jutes). The English tribes – Angles, Saxons and Jutes began to struggle for supremacy. Kent, Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex were strongest in turn. Kent was the greatest about the end of the 6th century, Northumbria – in the 7th and Wessex – in the 9th century.
Hardly had Edgar of Wessex became the lord of the country, when sea-rovers rushed into it. The furious rovers were Danes from the north. The Danes or Vikings conquered Mercia and East Anglia, and after that they attacked Wessex.
By the end of the 9th century there uprose one of the noblest English kings, Alfred the Great, an outstanding ruler and scholar. He successfully fought the Danes and made his kingdom – Wessex – very strong. After his death the country was divided into separate kingdoms, and the Danes once more began to make descents upon the English coasts. The king Ethelred bought them off with money. The Danes took that money and came away, but soon they returned and required more money. Ethelred fled to Normandy and Canute (Cnut), the Danish king, who also ruled Norway, added England to his empire. England was under the reign of the Danes till the 1042 when the power of the Old English nobility was restored under king Edward the Confessor.
A Chronology Chart:
55 BC Roman invasion of Britain under Julius Caesar.
43 AD Roman invasion and occupation under Emperor Claudius. Beginning of Roman rule of Britain.
436 Roman withdrawal from Britain complete. 449 Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain begins.
597 St. Augustine arrives in Britain. Beginning of Christian conversion.
792 Viking raids and settlements begin.
871 Alfred becomes king of Wessex.