International Agreements. Grammar: Phrasal Verbs
Exercise 1. Before reading the text, answer these questions:
a) Do you know any international agreements?
b) What do you know about TRIPS?
Exercise 2. Read the text to check your answers.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an (international) agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same.
Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts: both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, and a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law.
The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO). It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994.
The TRIPS agreement introduced intellectual property law into the international trading system for the first time and remains the most comprehensive international agreement on intellectual property to date. The Agreement introduced global minimum standards for protecting and enforcing nearly all forms of intellectual property rights. It set forth standards to be met by members of the WTO and detailed obligations regarding enforcement procedures. Among the enforcement requirements are border measures, including suspension of release by customs authorities, indemnification of the importer and owner of the goods, and a right of inspection to be provided by members.
TRIPS also specifies dispute resolution procedures. Protection and enforcement of all intellectual property rights shall meet the objectives to contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.
1. What do we call actors in international law?
2. Why can treaties be compared to contracts?
3. What is the most comprehensive international agreement on intellectual property?
4. What enforcement requirements are set forth by the Agreement?
Exercise 4. Make a list of word combinations from the above text you may need to talk about any international agreement. Compare your list with another student’s.
Exercise 5. Find the meanings of the phrasal verbs in the box in the Online Macmillan Dictionary http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/get. Complete the sentences with suitable particles.
1. Let's get ______ business.
2. How do you get _______ your classmates?
3. I know that you're still in love with your ex. But believe me, you will get ______ him soon.
4. Quick, get _______ the car. I'm not supposed to stop here.
5. I tried to get my point ________, but nobody seemed to care.
6. With 10 dollars per day, one can hardly get _________.
7. We have to get ________ the bus at the next stop.
8. My sister helped me get __________ the exam.
9. He is prepared to do anything in order to get________.
10. We won't get __________ the sea today if you don't cycle a bit faster.
Exercise 6.Circle the correct option. Remember that some verbs are followed by definite prepositions. Consult the dictionary if it is necessary.
1. This antique table dates back from/to/in 1872.
2. There is great demand from/for/of fresh products.
3. My plants died from/by/in lack of water.
4. One disadvantage of/to/in smoking is that it is bad for your health.
5. There are some disadvantages of/in/to owning a car.
6. John is an expert at/on/of the subject of British history.
7. Mandy is an expert in/with/on a needle and thread.
8. Mr Hills is engaged to/in/with an important meeting.
9. I dreamt of/about/for taking my exams last night.
10. I often dream from/of/about travelling abroad.
11. There is a difference between/of/from being alone and being lonely.
12. He differs from/of/between his brother in many ways.
13. Small children are dependent on/of/with their parents.
14. A good friend is someone you can depend by/for/on in difficult times.
15. Having a broken arm, he had difficulty by/in/of dressing himself.
16. Jake was disappointed by/with/of his exam results.
17. We were dissatisfied with/by/of the hotel service, so we complained to the manager.
18. Kate is experienced of/with/in working with children.
19. There was no excuse of/for/against his behaviour.
20. He promised to pay for the damage to/for/of my car.
Exercise 7. Before you read the following text, think about these questions.
a) What other important agreements do you know?
b) Which agreement regulates international trade in animal and plant species?
c) Why do you think these species need to be protected against over-exploitation through international trade?
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, pronounced sigh-tees) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines.
Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future.
CITES entered in force on 1 July 1975, and it is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention ('joined' CITES) are known as Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.
For many years CITES has been among the conservation agreements with the largest membership, with now 180 Parties.
Endangered species are listed under one of two appendices of CITES. If a species is listed under Appendix I, the member countries have agreed not to trade that species commercially. If a species is listed under Appendix II, the member countries have agreed to trade that species commercially only if it does not endanger the survival of the species.
Exercise 8. Make the necessary inquiries and answer the questions:
1. What are the regulations on importing endangered species, endangered wildlife, plants, exotic skins and animals?
2. Do you think international trade in species listed by CITES is legal when authorized by permit?
3. Where can the information on import/export of wildlife and plants, including lists of endangered species be obtained?
4. What happens if you import or export protected plants or animals illicitly or without the necessary documents (CITES certificates)?
Exercise 9.Read the following information and say what measures are taken by the Russian Government to control the same types of import. Look at the related websites of the Russian Federation.