B. Translate into Russian paying attention to the modals verbs. Identify the meanings of these modal verbs.

1. Professor Offer believes that economic growth must pull millions of people out of poverty.

2. Consumers should not be myopic creatures easily tempted by the lures of immediate satisfaction.

3. Economists have to start worrying about environmental and social limits to growth.

4. By choosing to study rather than to work, students have to sacrifice short-term income and greater consumption in order to secure higher living standards in the future.

5. Individuals shouldnt live for today rather than tomorrow.

6. Prudence may have built up affluence, but affluence is no friend of prudence.

7. Household-saving rates may have fallen, but this does not necessarily indicate imprudence.

8. Reluctance to save for retirement may be quite rational if, as in Britain, prudence is quite likely to mean a loss of means-tested pension benefits.

9. Prosperity must bring with it improved health care. It should extend horizons and widens opportunities for more and more people.

10. Rich societies must be able to foot the bill for treatment and medical advances.


  1. A) Read the words describing the qualities required for the legal profession and translate them into Russian. Use a dictionary.
  2. A. Do you know these famous Britons? Do these puzzles and read three more noted Britons.
  3. A. Look at the pie-chart and say whether other search service providers operate in the Russian market. Do you check their ads more than once?
  4. A. You will hear a manager interviewing a person for a job. Listen out for these verbs, and then use them to complete sentences 1-5.
  5. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  6. Are these instructions correct?
  7. Are these statements true or false?
  8. Are these true or false? Correct the false ones.
  10. B) Make up sentences with the word-groups you have translated.
  11. B) Translate the description of the father's walk.
  12. B) What can you say about the significance of the event described above for the history of Russian and world theatre?

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IV. Grammar Review: Modal verbs of advice, obligation, possibility and necessity | C. Grammar Expansion: Modals verbs of certainty, probability, possibility

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