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Morphological composition of nouns.

According to their morphological composition we distinguish simple,derivative and compound nouns.

1. Simple nouns are nouns which have neither prefixes nor suffixes. They are indecomposable: chair, table, room, map, fish, work.

2. Derivative nouns are nouns which have derivative elements (prefixes or suffixes or both): reader, sailor, blackness, childhood, misconduct,inexperience.

Productive noun-forming suffixes are:

 

-er: reader, teacher, worker

-ist: communist, telegraphist, dramatist

-ess: heiress, hostess, actress

-ness: carelessness, madness, blackness

-ism: socialism, nationalism, imperialism

 

Unproductive suffixes are:

 

-hood: childhood, manhood

-dom: freedom

-ship: friendship, relationship

-merit: development

-ance: importance

-ence: dependence

-ty: cruelty

-ity: generosity

 

3. Compoundnouns are nouns built from two or more stems. Compound nouns often have one stress. The meaning of a compound often differs from the meanings of its elements.

The main types of compound nouns are as follows:

(a) noun-stem + noun-stem: appletree, snowball;

(b) adjective-stem + noun-stem: blackbird, bluebell;

(c) verb-stem + noun-stem: pickpocket; the stem of a gerund or of aparticiple may be the first component of a compound noun: dining-room, reading-hall, dancing-girl.

 


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THE NOUN | Classification of nouns.

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