D) compound-shortened words (contracted compounds),

e.g. tourmobile, V-day, motocross, intervision, Eurodollar, Camford.

4. According to the relations between the components compound words are subdivided into:

a) Subordinate compounds with one of the components being the semantic and the structural centre and the second component is subordinate; these subordinate relations can be different:

comparative relations, e.g. honey-sweet, eggshell-thin,

Limiting relations, e.g. breast-high, knee-deep,

Emphatic relations, e.g. dog-cheap;

objective relations, e.g. gold-rich;

cause relations, e.g. love-sick,

space relations, e.g. top-heavy;

time relations, e.g. spring-fresh;

subjective relations, e.g. foot-sore, etc.

b) coordinative compounds where both components are semantically independent. Here belong such compounds when one person (object) has two functions, e.g. secretary-stenographer, woman-doctor, Oxbridge, etc.

Such compounds are called additive. This group includes also compounds formed by means of reduplication, e.g. fifty-fifty, pretty-pretty (ironical), never-never, no-no, blah-blah and also compounds formed with the help of rhythmic stems (reduplication combined with sound interchange, ablaut combinations) e.g. criss-cross(rhythmical), chit-chat (idle talk), sing-song(monotonous voice), walkie-talkie.

5. According to the order of the components compounds are divided into compounds with direct order, e.g. kill-joy, and compounds with indirect order, e.g. nuclear-free, rope-ripe.


  2. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  3. Archaic, obsolete and historic words
  4. Combine the following words into sentences.
  5. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
  6. Complete with the words from the text. Translate them into Ukrainian.
  7. Compose sentences with the words and word-combinations from Ex. 10.
  8. Compose sentences with the words and word-combinations from Ex. 8.
  9. Compose sentences with the words and word-combinations from Ex. 9.
  10. Divergences in the semantic structure of words
  11. Free Word-Groups Versus Phraseological Units Versus Words

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