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If the lexical meaning of the root morpheme and the lexico-grammatical meaning of the stem coincide the word is primary,

e.g. pen - to pen, father - to father .

The nouns are names of an object and a living being. Therefore in the nouns pen and father the lexical meaning of the root and the lexico-grammatical meaning of the stem coincide.

The verbs to pen and to father denote an action, a process therefore the lexico-grammatical meanings of the stems do not coincide with the lexical meanings of the roots. The verbs have a complex semantic structure and they were converted from nouns.

2. If we compare a converted pair with a synonymic word pair which was formed by means of suffixation we can find out which of the pair is primary. This criterion can be applied only to nouns converted from verbs, e.g. chat n. and chat v. can be compared with conversation - converse, employment employ.

3. The criterion based on derivational relations is of more universal character. In this case we must take a word-cluster of relative words to which the converted pair belongs. If the root stem of the word-cluster has suffixes added to a noun stem the noun is primary in the converted pair and vice versa, e.g. in the word-cluster : hand n., hand v., handy, handful the derived words have suffixes added to a noun stem, that is why the noun is primary and the verb is converted from it. In the word-cluster: dance n., dance v., dancer, dancing we see that the primary word is a verb and the noun is converted from it.


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  1. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  2. Arrange the following units into two lexical and two terminological sets. I Give them corresponding names.
  3. Classification of word meaning
  4. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
  5. Conversion is the main way of forming verbs in Modern English. Verbs can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings, e.g.
  6. Grammatical meaning.
  7. Grammatical meaning.
  8. Identifying morphemes independently of meaning
  9. II. Read the following text paying attention to the highlighted words. Explain or interpret the contextual meaning of the underlined phrases
  10. II. Read the following text paying attention to the highlighted words. Explain or interpret the contextual meaning of the underlined phrases
  11. II. Read the following text paying attention to the highlighted words. Explain or interpret the contextual meaning of the underlined phrases




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Conversion is the main way of forming verbs in Modern English. Verbs can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings, e.g. | SUBSTANTIVATION OF ADJECTIVES

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