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Conversion is the main way of forming verbs in Modern English. Verbs can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings, e.g.

a) verbs have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting parts of a human body e.g. to eye, to finger, to elbow, to shoulder etc. They have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting tools, machines, instruments, weapons, e.g. to hammer, to machine-gun, to rifle, to nail,

b) an action characteristic of the living being denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to crowd, to wolf, to ape,

c) acquisition, addition or deprivation if they are formed from nouns denoting an object, e.g. to fish, to dust, to peel, to paper,

d) an action performed at the place denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to park, to garage, to bottle, to corner, to pocket,

e) an action performed at the time denoted by the noun from which they have been converted e.g. to winter, to week-end .

Verbs can be also converted from adjectives, in such cases they denote the change of the state, e.g. to tame (to become or make tame), to clean, to slim etc.

Nouns can also be formed by means of conversion from verbs. Converted nouns can denote:

a) instant of an action e.g. a jump, a move,

b) process or state e.g. sleep, walk,

c) agent of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a help, a flirt, a scold ,

D) object or result of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted,

e.g. a burn, a find, a purchase,

e) place of the action: e.g. a drive, a stop, a walk.

Many nouns converted from verbs can be used only in the Singular form and denote momentary actions. In such cases we have partial conversion. Such deverbal nouns are often used with such verbs as : to have, to get, to take etc.,

E.g. to have a try, to give a push, to take a swim .

CRITERIA OF SEMANTIC DERIVATION

In cases of conversion the problem of criteria of semantic derivation arises: which of the converted pair is primary and which is converted from it.

The problem was first analyzed by prof. A.I. Smirnitsky. P.A. Soboleva developed his idea and worked out the following criteria:


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  1. Adverbs the hereafter
  2. AND DATA PROCESSING IN MODERN SOCIETY
  3. Brainstorming. In small groups of 3 or 4 students discuss formulated answers.
  4. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
  5. Different phonological schools and their concept of phoneme
  6. Different valency
  7. Differentiating consonants with same location and manner of articulation
  8. Divergences in the semantic structure of words
  9. English modal verbs having not always modal verb equivalents in Ukrainian.
  10. Examples of compounding from different languages
  11. Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to Participle Constructions in different syntactic functions.




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OUTLINE | If the lexical meaning of the root morpheme and the lexico-grammatical meaning of the stem coincide the word is primary,

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