III. Vocabulary: Word origin
A. Many English words come from the Latin language and have a similar meaning. Decide what the words mean and match the correct meaning with each prefix.
Deficit, import, export, pro-active, surplus, decrease, combine, surmount, rethink, premature, escape, survive, devaluation, include, default, comprise, subdivide, destruct, construct, prolong, return, exclude, repay, increase, imbalance, innovation, recycle.
1. pre _______________________________
2. de ______________________________
3. pro ______________________________
4. im (in) ___________________________
5. sub ______________________________
6. con (com) _________________________
7. sur _____________________________
8. ex (es) __________________________
9. re ______________________________
b. withf. not or in
c. out of g. over, above
d. before h. down or make less
e. forwards i. back or again
B. Translate the sentences from the text into Russian paying attention to the words with different prefixes:
1. One of the biggest barriers to more efficient recycling is that most products were not designed with recycling in mind.
2. Remedying the problem may require a complete rethinking of industrial processes.
3. Recycling should be taken into account at the design stage, they argue, and all material should either be able to return to the soil safely or be recycled indefinitely.
4. As well as trying to reduce the amount of packaging, Wal-Mart also wants to recycle more of it.
5. Earlier this year the European Parliament voted to increase recycling rates by 2020 to 50% of municipal waste and 70% of industrial waste.
6. Some of the surplus glass is down – cycled into construction aggregates or sand for filtration systems.
7. The energy savings for both appear to be “marginal or even disadvantageous”.
8. Working with industry, WRAP has started a new programme called Glass Rite Wine, in an effort to right the imbalance.
9. This may dismay some wine connoisseurs, but it solves two problems: it reduces the amount of green glass that is imported and puts what is imported to good use.
10. They have developed guidelines that look beyond the traditional benchmarks of packaging design to emphasise the use of renewable, recycled and non-toxic source materials.
IV. Grammar Review: Modal forms and Tenses
Uses of modal forms include the following:
· possibility: They may / might / could get more people working on the project.
· obligation: There must be good working relationship in a team.
· advice: A team should be experienced enough to be successful.
· deductions: He is very late. He can’t know the time of the session.
A. Make the sentences less certain by using might, may, could.