Original Metaphors and Their Translation


The preservation of original metaphors in imaginative prose is obligatory as they belong to the main features of a writers individual style. If for some linguistic reason (different valency, different semantic structure, etc.) the original metaphor cannot be preserved, resort is taken to stylistic replacements or compensation either by substituting another image or by using another stylistic device, e.g.


And Might by limping Sway disabled. (Shakespeare Sonnet 66)

. (. .)


The metaphoric epithets limping and are formally not identical semantic units but as they have a common seme denoting a physical defect, stylistically they may be regarded as equivalents.


The sun would pour through the shutters, tiger-striping the table and floor

(G. Durrell)

, .


The metaphor is rendered by a simile.

An original metaphor has sometimes to be substituted for grammatical reasons, for instance, the category of gender may be a case in point.


Cant think how he married that glass of sour milk. (W.Deeping).

, .


The Ukrainian noun is masculine and must in this case be substituted by a feminine noun .

A trite metaphor is sometimes revived by adding to it a new image expressed by one or more words.


He was a rich vein of information, and I mined him assiduously. (G.Durrell).

³ , .


Sometimes the difficulty of rendering metaphors in translation is due to the fact that the metaphor is based on some phraseological unit which has no equivalent in Ukrainian.

Never before had Lucy met that negative silence in its full perfection, in its full cruelty. Her own edges began to curl up sympathy. (J. Tey).

ͳ , ; .


The metaphor in this example her own edges began to curl up in sympathy is linked up with two phraseological unities:

1. to be on edge to be excited or irritable; 2. to set persons teeth on edge jar his nerves, affect him with repulsion (The Concise Oxford Dictionary). The semes in this case are reshuffled, the referential meaning of the word edge is revived, and the meaning of the two phraseological unities (to be irritable, to have ones nerves jarred) is present. This interaction of two meanings is perceived as deliberate interplay.



  1. Antonymic translation
  2. B) Partial Translation Equivalents
  3. Basic translation theories
  4. By Descriptive or Interpreting Translation
  5. Classification of phraseological units and their structural types.
  6. Different phonological schools and their concept of phoneme
  7. Faithful and equivalent translation.
  8. Free Translation
  9. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.
  10. IV Analyze verb-forms and translate the following sentences. Match the verb-forms with their tenses in Active or Passive Voice.
  11. Literal translation
  12. Map of disciplines interfacing with Translation Studies

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National Character of Stylistic Systems | Foregrounding of Degrees of Comparison

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