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Тлумачний словник

Literal translation

Equivalent translation

Equivalence at Text Level

Equivalence at Sentence Level

Equivalence of Phrase Level

Equivalence at Word Level

Morphological Level of Equivalence

Word-building Level of Equivalence

Phonetic level of Equivalence

Levels of equivalence


Equivalence may occur at different linguistic levels: phonetic, word building, morphological, at word level, at phrase level, at sentence level and finally at text level.


The sound form of corresponding English and Ukrainianwords seldom coincide, consequently this level of equivalence is not common and is of primary importance only in poetic translation.


e.g.: irresponsible – безвідповідальний; unpredictable – непередбачений; counterbalance – противага, еtс.


e.g.: The report’s proposals were handed to a political committee.

Пропозиції звіту були передані політичному комітету.

e.g.: She clasped her hands round her handbag. (Agatha Christie).

Вона міцно стиснула в руках свою сумочку.


Equivalence at phrase level is of two kinds: a SL word corresponds to a TL phrase (to negotiate – вести переговори), a SL phrase corresponds to a TL word (Hippies are in revolt against an acquisitive society. – Хiппi повстають проти споживацього суспільства).


It occurs: a) in phraseology – two is company, three is none – третій зайвий; b) in orders and regulations – keep off the grass – по газону не ходити.


It is usual in the translation of poetry as seen in the translation of William Blake’s stanza by S. Marshak.

1. To see a World in a Grain of Sand,

2. And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,

3. Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand,

4. And Eternity in an hour.

(W. Blake, Auguries of Innocence)

В одно мгновенье видеть вечность,

Огромный мир – в зерне песка,

В единой горсти – бесконечность

И небо – в чашечке цветка.


The translation by S.Marshak may be regarded as excellent. The text as a unity is reproduced most fully and this conception of unity justifies the change in the order of the lines within the stanza.

A strict observance of equivalence at all levels ensures a similar reaction on the part of the S and T language receptors and can be achieved by means of functional substitutions.


7. Types of translation


The following three types of translation can be distinguished: equivalent translation, literal translation and free translation.


Equivalent translation has been considered in the preceding pages. Achieving equivalence is the goal aimed at in translation.


In spite of the fact that there are cases of semantic and structural coincidences they are rather an exception. A literal or word translation is obviously unacceptable because it results in a violation of form, or a distortion of sense, or both.

No desire on the part of the translator to preserve in his translation the lexical, grammatical or stylistic peculiarities of the original text can justify any departure from the norms of the TL.

Literal translation imposes upon the TL text alien lexical and grammatical structures, alien collocability, alien connotations and alien stylistic norms.

In literal translation form prevails over content and the meaning of the text is distorted. Literalism may be lexical, grammatical or stylistic, e.g.


He wagged a grateful tail and climbed on the seat (Georgetta Heyer).

Він вдячно завиляв хвостом і витеребився на сидіння.


She was letting her temper go by inches (Monica Dickens).

Вона потроху втрачала терпіння. (Вона все більш і більш втрачала терпіння.


The pragmatic aspect of translation does not admit literalism either – and requires interpreting translation or substitution.

The Tory Team, however, aren’t all batting on the same wicket?


The metaphor is taken from cricket, a very popular game in Britain but hardly known to Ukrainianreaders.

Однак, консерватори не спільні.

Однак, команда консерваторів грала не одностайно.


Читайте також:

  1. Antonymic translation
  2. B) Partial Translation Equivalents
  3. Basic translation theories
  4. By Descriptive or Interpreting Translation
  5. Faithful and equivalent translation.
  6. Free Translation
  7. Map of disciplines interfacing with Translation Studies
  8. Objectively and subjectively conditioned transformations of lexical units in the process of translation.
  9. Original Metaphors and Their Translation
  10. Referential Meaning and its Rendering in Translation
  11. Rendering of stylistic meaning in translation

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Types of translation equivalence | Referential Meaning and its Rendering in Translation

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