Студопедия
Новини освіти і науки:
Контакти
 


Тлумачний словник






Types of translation equivalence

Equivalence implies variability and consequently several types of equivalence can be distinguished.

First Type – Formal Equivalence

 

Children go to school every morning.

Діти ходять до школи кожного ранку.

 

The content, the structure of the sentence and the semantic components (language units) are similar. Each element of the SL text has a corresponding one in the TL text. But such cases of complete similarity are rather rare.

 

Second Type – Partial Correspondence Equivalence

 

Non-corresponding elements may be lexical, grammatical or stylistical. Equivalence of the second type is usually achieved by means of various transformations: substitution or replacements (both lexical and grammatical), additions and omissions, paraphrasing and compensation.

All through the long foreign summer the American tourist abroad has been depressed by the rubber quality of his dollar.

Під час тривалого літнього перебування за кордоном американських туристів пригнічувало постійне скорочення купівельної спроможності долару.

Although a considerable degree of equivalence has been achieved a number of transformations, certain losses have been incurred, namely, compactness and vividness. They are accounted for by existing discrepancies in collocability (valency).

Attention should be paid to the Stylistic aspect of equivalence because of its importance in achieving the second type of equivalence. The stylistic aspect of equivalence implies the rendering in translation of stylistic and emotive connotations. Stylistic connotations presuppose the use of words belonging to the same layer of the vocabulary (literary, neutral and colloquial). Emotive connotations presuppose the use of words evoking similar connotations. The following example illustrates the rendering of stylistic connotations:

Delegates to the conference in San Francisco, April, 1945, from European countries have been traveling three weeks. The German U-boats which were hanging around were most effectively scared off by depth-charges from accompanying destroyers.

Делегати з європейських країн на Конференцію в Сан-Франциско, що відкрилась у квітні 1945р., були на шляху до неї майже три тижні. Глибинні бомби, що супроводжували есмінці, успішно відганяли німецькі підводні човни, які й досі шмигали в океані.

The colloquial verb “to hang around” is rendered by a stylistically equivalent colloquial verb.

Emotive connotations must also be rendered in translation to achieve equivalence.

If for some reason (absence of a corresponding lexical-semantic variant, different collocability, etc.) there is no equivalent correlated word in the TL the translator is expected to preserve the emotive meaning sometimes at the expense of the referential, e.g.:

 

At night passers would see the fierce dead glare of the patent lamp (W. Faulkner).

Вночі перехожі бачили нестерпно-яскраве мертовне світло від не затуленого щитом вуличного ліхтаря.

 

Attention should also be drawn to the pragmatic aspect of equivalence.

Pragmatic equivalence can be achieved only by means of interpreting extra-linguistic factors.

Mr. Healey by his decision presented a Christmas package so small that it is hardly even a Christmas stocking-filler.

Заходи, яких наважився вжити міністр фінансів Хілі напередодні самого різдва, були такими куцими, що їх навряд чи можна було назвати різдвяним подарунком.

 

The literal translation of “a Christmas stocking-filler” – “що вони навряд чи могли б наповнити різдвяну панчоху” would hardly convey any sense to the Ukrainian receptor unfamiliar with the custom. In this case the pragmatic aspect motivated the translation “a Christmas stocking-filler” by “різдвяний подарунок”. The addition of the words “міністр фінансів” is also necessitated by pragmatic considerations.

Here is another example of interesting substitution.

The Elgin marbles seem an indisputable argument in favor of the preservation of works of art by rape.

Статуї й фриз, зняті лордом Елліном з Парфенону й відвезені до Англії, очевидно є неспростовним доказом на користь збереження витворів мистецтва шляхом крадіжки.

The substitution of the subject and the addition of the participle construction convey the necessary pragmatic information. If a detail denoting some national feature is not important enough it may safely be omitted, e.g.

He could take nothing for dinner but a partridge with an imperial pint of champagne (J. Galsworthy).

За обідом він з’їв тільки куропатку і запив її пляшкою шампанського.

The word “imperial” does not convey any significant information and may therefore be omitted in the Ukrainian translation without impairing equivalence.

The pragmatic aspect of the content is sometimes closely interwoven with the linguistic aspect and their interaction also requires explanatory additions, e.g.

 

I was sent to a boarding school when I was very little – about five – because my mother and father … couldn’t afford anything so starchy as an English nurse or a French governess (Ilka Chase).

Мене відправили до пансіону, коли я була зовсім маленькою, мені було років п’ять, тому що мої батьки не могли дозволити собі ані справжньої англійської няньки в накрохмаленому чепці й фартуху, ані манірної французької гувернантки.

 

The difficulty there lies not only in the pragmatic aspect of the adjective “starchy” but also in its use in two meanings, direct and indirect, simultaneously (1. накрахмалений; 2. манірнй).

 

Third Type – Situational or Factual Equivalence

The content or sense of the utterance is conveyed by different grammatical and lexical units.

Situational equivalence is observed when the same phenomenon is described in a different way because it is seen from a different angle, e.g.

 

The police cleared the streets.

Поліція розігнала демонстрацію.

 

Unemployed teenagers are often left without means of gaining food and shelter.

Безробітні підлітки часто опиняються без засобів існування.

 

Hold the line.

Не вішайте слухавку.

The Commonwealth countries handle a quarter of the world’s trade.

На країни британської співдружності припадає чверть світової торгівлі.

 

This type of equivalence also comprises the translation of clichés, orders, warnings and notices, phraseological units and set expressions, formulae of politeness, etc.

 

There were no survivors.

Усі загинули.

 

Fragile – обережно, скло;

Keep off, wet paint – не сідати, пофарбовано;

Many happy returns of the day – вітаю з днем народження.

In this way, the third type of equivalence conveys the sense, the meaning of the utterance without preserving its formal elements.

(For a detailed analysis of the levels of equivalence problems and the structural level patterns the reader is referred to the studies of Soviet linguists В.Н.Комісаров «Слово о переводе» and В.Н.Крупнов «Сборник научных трудов», вип. 203, с. 183-199).

 


Читайте також:

  1. Antonymic translation
  2. B) Partial Translation Equivalents
  3. Basic translation theories
  4. By Descriptive or Interpreting Translation
  5. Classification of phraseological units and their structural types.
  6. Faithful and equivalent translation.
  7. Free Translation
  8. Lesson 30 Types of Combat
  9. Literal translation
  10. Look at this form of a music collection. Label the data types with words from B opposite.
  11. Map of disciplines interfacing with Translation Studies
  12. Objectively and subjectively conditioned transformations of lexical units in the process of translation.




<== попередня сторінка | наступна сторінка ==>
 | Literal translation

Не знайшли потрібну інформацію? Скористайтесь пошуком google:

 

© studopedia.com.ua При використанні або копіюванні матеріалів пряме посилання на сайт обов'язкове.


Генерація сторінки за: 0.002 сек.