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Тлумачний словник

Types of Operation

Planning and Organization of Warfare

Causes of Warfare

Warfare is employed to bring about or to resist political, social, or economic changes. History provides evidence of such tangible, and frequently interrelated, causes as religious conflict, protection of dynastic succession, or acquisition of territory. War for acquisition of land is directly related to the necessity of providing food for a nation or a group. Wars are also often linked to a desire for security, on the theory that a so-called first strike prevents an enemy from carrying out threats. According to some much disputed theories, such as those of the Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz, innate aggressive drives are responsible for human beings' frequent recourse to warfare.

The overall plan devised to defeat an enemy is called strategy. The actual techniques carried out against the enemy are tactics, which consist of the procedures for winning on the battlefield, in naval battle, and in aerial combat. Once the overall strategic plan has been approved, planning cycles at lower echelons are implemented. The execution of plans, making possible the attainment of military objectives, involves functions carried out by a field commander whose tactical judgment and leadership are critical. Logistics, which involves transporting troops and furnishing continuous supplies in support of military operations, is essential to the success of the mission. Mobilizing industry, utilities, and medical service, as well as scientific research facilities and propaganda sources, are also part of the logistics planning process.

The changes in types of operation – from ancient hand-to-hand combat to modern deployment of nuclear missiles – are linked to changes in technology. The introduction of gunpowder, and the invention of the steam engine, the telegraph, and the internal-combustion engine, completely changed land and sea warfare and added a third type – air warfare.

Offensive actionsinvolve operations to defeat the enemy’s armed forces and destroy his will to fight. Defensive warfare entails the employment of all means and methods to prevent, resist, or destroy an enemy attack. Its purpose may be twofold: to gain time pending the development of more favorable conditions to take the offensive, or to concentrate forces in one area for decisive offense elsewhere.

Psychological warfare aims at destroying an enemy’s will to resist. It includes the use of propaganda (printed, broadcast, or in the form of films) andaerial bombardment employed for its demoralizing effect on the enemy civilian population as well as on combatant forces.

The development of powerful nuclear explosive devices capable of destroying targets ranging in size from large cities to entire battlefields has changed the nature of modern warfare. The possible employment of tactical nuclear weapons on the battlefield has made it extremely hazardous to mass conventional air, sea, or land forces in any one locale. For example, aircraft carriers, large formations of heavy bombers, or concentrations of armored units could all be destroyed by a single nuclear explosion. Even more vulnerable are civilian populations and economic centers that could be devastated by nuclear warheads launched from a distance of several thousand kilometers via intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). As a result, total warfare between nations equipped with nuclear weapons has become unacceptable as a sane option.

s Answer the questions

1. What is a war?

2. Do you think there is a difference between terms “war” and “warfare”?

3. What forms of military confrontations do you know?

4. What wars do you know?

5. What factors influence the conduct of war?

6. What are the most common causes of war?

7. What is the difference between strategy and tactics?

8. How did the advent of nuclear weapons change the nature of warfare?


> Read, decipher and translate abbreviations


N O Translate into Ukrainian

According to international law; armed conflict; the use of force; to settle disputes; to settle disputes by diplomatic means; military confrontation; to assume global proportions; factions; without actual recourse to arms; to maintain law and order within the region; without being acknowledged as wars; major powers; a preferable alternative to sth; the military institutions of a nation; economic strength; social structure; a standing army; to bring about changes; political, social, or economic changes; interrelated causes; acquisition of territory; a desire for security; to prevent an enemy from carrying out threats; innate aggressive drives; at lower echelons; the attainment of military objectives; judgment; in support of military operations; mission; logistics planning; hand-to-hand combat; internal-combustion engine; steam engine; sea warfare; land, sea, and air warfare; to defeat the enemy’s armed forces; to destroy the enemy’s will to resist; to prevent an enemy attack; to gain time; to create favorable conditions for the offensive; to concentrate forces in one area; to aim at sth; broadcast propaganda.


N O Translate into English

Суперечності; відкритий конфлікт; довготривалий конфлікт; дипломатичними засобами; розбіжності, які не можна врегулювати дипломатичними засобами; воєнні дії; знаходити свій прояв у різних формах; організовані військові протистояння; стан війни; повстанці; тривати впродовж довгого часу; навмисно утримуватись від застосування збройної міці; завершуватись договором; форма правління; географічне положення; користуватися перевагами відособленого географічного положення; причини війни; чинити опір змінам; війна за оволодіння землею; перший удар; природні агресивні бажання; загальний стратегічний план; виконання планів; польовий командир; лідерські якості; бути необхідним для успішного виконання бойового завдання; види бойових дій; розгортання ядерних ракет; порох; воєнні дії на суші; воєнні дії в повітрі; завдавати поразки противнику; застосування всіх засобів; мати дві мети; сприятливі умови для наступу; рішучий наступ; друкована пропаганда; кінопропаганда.

ó N O Translate quickly

Згідно з нормами міжнародного права; open conflict; збройний конфлікт; prolonged conflict; використання сили; disputes; врегулювати розбіжності; by diplomatic means; військове протистояння; organized military confrontations; набувати всесвітніх масштабів; disputes that cannot be settled by diplomatic means; угруповання; a state of war; без реального застосування зброї; rebels; підтримувати законність і правопорядок в регіоні; to purposely refrain from employing the armed strength; без визнання в якості війни; to be terminated by a treaty; головні держави; the form of government; військові організації країни; geographical position; економічна міць; causes of warfare; соціальна структура; to take advantage of isolated geographical position; приводити до змін; to resist changes; взаємопов’язані причини; war for acquisition of land; бажання мати безпеку; first strike; не дозволяти противнику реалізувати загрози; the overall strategic plan; на нижчих рівнях; the execution of plans; виконання військових завдань; leadership; розсудливість; to be essential to sth; бойове завдання; types of operation; планування МТЗ; deployment of nuclear missiles; рукопашний бій; gunpowder; двигун внутрішнього згорання; land warfare; зламати волю противника чинити опір; to create favorable conditions for the offensive; вигравати час; decisive offense; зосереджувати війська в одному районі.

A Build up your vocabulary



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