She is surprised by the rain. She thinks it should be snowing at this time of year, it is so cold outside. But it is raining instead

It is raining.

Fictional time and space


She gathered herself together. No one could describe the scorn of her expression or the contemptuous hatred she put into her answer.

Tragedy is always foreshadowed. Even in art. Nothing on earth happens without warning. Looking back on it now, I realise everything was against that sudden trip to Florida. Odd harbingers cropped up at every turn, little twinges of anxiety that should have signalled alarm.

O. Twist; Othello; Plushkin

The Moon and Sixpence

The Lotus Eater

b.the proper name


c. the opening of a literary text

J. Higgins A Little Death Music

d. the closing part:

- the close ending - And they lived happily ever after

- the open ending

You men! You filthy, dirty pigs! Youre all the same, all of you. Pigs! Pigs!

Dr. Macphail gasped. He understood. (W.S. Maugham Rain)

e. poetic / artistic detail =

a laconic expression of a complicated idea




depicting / characterological details

The room, not much used now, was still vaguely haunted for them both by a presence with which they associated tenderness, large drooping white moustaches, the scent of cigar smoke and laughter.(J. Galsworthy)

authenticity details

E. Hemingway The Chauffeurs of Madrid

We drove up from Valencia with Tomas and, as we sighted Madrid rising like a great white fortress across the plain from Alcala de Henares, Tomas said, through missing teeth, Long live Madrid, the Capital of my Soul!

implicit detail

She came in and took her coat off right away and a sort of chucked it on the bed. She had on a green dress underneath.

Ya got a hanger? I dont want to get my dress all wrinkly. Its brand-clean, - she said. (J. Salinger The Catcher in the Rye)

artistic detail - artistic symbolSnows of Kyllimangaro - hyena


the anthropocentric feature of the text - manis in the focus of the plot within the temporal /spatial setting

a. fictional time

- is ideal

- is formed by switching over from one temporal plane to another

Hamlet: The time is out of joint.

. (Ed McBain Long Time No See)

She nodded then, and said in a voice almost a whisper, It was raining. It was very cold outside. It seemed as if it should be snowing

As they listened, the present dissolved into the past, only to become the present again a different present, but an immediate nonetheless; whatever had happened in that basement room so long ago seemed to be happening here and now, this instant.

flashbacks = a glance to the past (anaphoric): Thats what he recollected

G. Greene The End of the Party

Peter said it with confidence. But he was the elder, by a matter of minutes, and that brief extra interval of light, while his brother still struggled in pain and darkness, had given him self-reliance.

foreshadowing / future reference = a glance to the future (cataphoric)

He strode into the living room feeling very brisk and competent. He could not know, of course, that when Louise did get home he would be out cold on the divan.(R.Warren)

dynamic / static time

L. Stevenson The Pavilion on the Links

As we went downstairs the heat was excessive, and the roaring of the fire filled our ears; and we had scarce reached the passage before the stairs window fell in, a branch of flame shot brandishing through the aperture, and the interior of the pavilion became lit up with that dreadful and fluctuating glare. At the same moment we heard the fall of something heavy in the upper storey. The whole pavilion had gone alight like a box of matches, and now not only flamed sky high to land and sea, butthreatened with every moment to crumble and fall in about our ears.

b. fictional space =


  1. Classification of phraseological units and their structural types.
  2. Lesson 30 Types of Combat
  3. Look at this form of a music collection. Label the data types with words from B opposite.
  4. Replacements of sentence types
  5. The Types of Managers
  6. Types of dictionaries
  7. Types of Fitness Programs
  8. Types of Fitness Programs
  9. Types of meaning.
  10. Types of Operation
  11. Types of Operation

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