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Тлумачний словник

Words having lexico-stylistic paradigm

Words having no lexico-stylistic paradigm









1. Беспалько В.П. Основы теории педагогических систем/ ВГУ. Воронеж, 1977. 304 с.

2. Турбович Л.Т. Информационно-семантическая модель обучения. Л.: Изд-во ЛГУ, 1970. 177 с.

3. Фишман Л.И. Обратные связи в управлении педагогическими системами: Автореф. дис. … д-ра. пед. наук. СПб., 1994.



На Содержание



a.common literary

b.special literary

a.common colloquial

b.special colloquial

Prof. Kukharenko

a.general literary

b.special literary

a.general colloquial

b. special colloquial

Prof. Morokhovsky

criteria - paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations

-have only denotative meaning

- are stylistically neutral

- have no synonyms

- have no subjective evaluation

- have no stylistic functions

terms, exotic words, lexical neologisms,historic words

may acquire stylistic meaning only in speech due to syntagmatic relations

-have connotative meaning

- stylistically marked (loaded)

- have neutral synonyms

- have subjective evaluation

- have stylistic functions

a. high-flown words

archaic, poetic, bookish, barbarisms

b. low-flown words

colloquial words, slang, jargon, dialectal words, vulgarisms

Prof. Screbnev

criterion - the social prestige of the word

Positive (elevated)


Negative (degraded)

'degrees' of elevation or degradation:

maximally elevated = poetic diction = high prose

morn, sylvan, ne'er

medially elevated =expressively bookish

sagacity =wisdom, cleverness

expunge, expurgate =strike out or wipe out parts of a text

minimally elevated = slightly bookish words

prevail, activity, inherent

minimal degree of stylistic degradation =colloquial words

chap, chunk, sniffy, drifter


medial degree of stylistic degradation=

jargon, slang

big potato ,apicture show - military jargon

maximal degree of stylistic degradation=

vulgar words

bloody, damn

1. Literary / high-flown / elevated vocabulary

Poetic words

Albion (Britain)

quoth (said)

steed, courser (horse)

eke (also)

maiden (a young lady)

foe (enemy)

Poetic words are used to:

to create a solemn, lofty, elevated effect;

to create poetic images

Poetic words are:

- no longer current

-archaic in nature

I saw thee weep - the big bright tear

Came o’er that eye of blue;

And then methought it did appear

A violet dropping dew.


Archaic words (ancient) = obsolescent words = obsolete words

though , thee, thy, thine

methinks =it seems to me

nay = no

archaic words vs historic words

archaic words =

- old words for denoting still existing objects

- have synonyms

main = ocean

to deem = to consider

buss = kiss

historic words / material archaisms/historical archaisms =

- denote already non-existing objects

yeoman, hauberk, mace

Archaic words are used to:

- to create an effect of antiquity;

- to provide /realistic/authentic historical background;

- to acquaint the reader with past habits, customs;

- to create/imitate an atmosphere of the historical epoch

archaization is relative -occasional use of archaic words and forms

Bookish words

are used:

- in books

- in oral polished speech (public speeches, official negotiations)

- are mostly loan words (Latin and Greek)

commence = begin

spouse = wife, husband

individual was precipitated = man fell

“To plunge into the refreshing wave and be wrapped round with the liquid element is indeed a most delightful sensation. But health and pleasure may equally consulted in these salutary ablutions; and to many a man countenance can be the blush of the rose restored by an occasional dip in the purifying surge of the ocean.” (J. Austen)

Bookish words are used :

to create the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, learnedness;

to give speech characteristics: to indicate the social standing of the character, his/her education

- used in colloquial speech /informal situations - may create a comical effect

“Little Red Riding Hood”

Russel Baker “Little Red Riding Hood Revisited”

Once upon a point in time, a small person named Little Red Riding Hood initiated plans for the preparation, delivery and transportation of foodstuffs to her grandmother, a senior citizen residing at a place of residence in a forest of indeterminate dimension.

In the process of implementing this program, her incursion into the forest was in mid-transportation process when it attained interface with an alleged perpetrator. This individual, a wolf, made inquiry as to the whereabouts of Little Red Riding Hood's goal as well as inferring that he was desirous of ascertaining the contents of Little Red Riding Hood's foodstuffs basket.

"Grandma, I have brought you some cruelty free snacks to salute you in your role of wise and nurturing matriarch."

"Grandmother," Little Red said upon entering, "your ocular implements appear to be of an extraordinary order of magnitude today."

"You forget that I am optically challenged.” - said the grandmother.

"In reference to your ears," said Red, "may I note with the deepest respect that far from being petite, their elongation and enlargement appear to qualify you for unparalleled distinction."

Neologisms = newly coined words

browser, e-mail, Netscape Communicator, hacker

stylistic neologisms vs lexical neologisms

stylistic neologisms - denote existing objects

see-saw = battle; hush-hush work = secret work;

eggbeater = helicopter

lexical neologisms = new words denoting new objects/ concepts

rockumentary, push-button war, fruitologist

Nonce words =

- non-existent

- invented for the given occasion

- created by analogy with “legitimate” words

humanity - womanity

There was a balconyful of gentlemen


She objected to George because he was George. It was, as it were, his essential Georgeness that offended her.

winner-take-all voting

mad-as-hell voter

can’t-tell-the-truth-to-people philosophy


borrowed words vs barbarisms vs foreign words

borrowed words= 'denizens’ = words naturalized

police, parliament, beautiful

barbarism = assimilated borrowings = 'aliens'

- preserved their native spelling and pronunciation

parvenu, protege, beau monde

foreign words= non-assimilated borrowings

- occasionally used in speech for stylistic reasons

“Mon Dieu!” murmured Poirot. “This is terrible! Ah, mon ami, it is this villainous sea that troubles me! The mal de mer - it is horrible suffering!” (A.Christie)


Barbarisms and foreign words are used to:

to give speech characteristics;

to show the foreign origin of the character;

to supply the local colouring

Р. Зорівчак Боліти болем слова нашого


в домені науки







на кшталт

peace negotiations – мирові переговори

the Canadian Peace Organization – канадська мирова організація

the heart disease – серцева хвороба

a protest meeting –протестний мітинг

hotel workers - готельні робітники


2. Colloquial / low-flown / degraded vocabulary

a/ common colloquial vocabulary - a part of Standard English word-stock - informal speech

oops, oh, gee, wow, alas (interjections)

demo, comp (contraction)

don't, s'long, с'топ, gimme, wanna, gonna (amalgamation of two words)

missy, girlie (affixation)

legman, yellow-belly (compounding and blending)

физиономия, портрет, морда, рожа, харя, рыло, будка

Colloquialisms are used to:

to mark the passage as informal, non-official, conversational

to give an emotional coloring to speech

to add authenticity in imitating oral communication


b/ slang

- non-standard vocabulary understood and used by the whole nation

- the language of sub-cultures

- the language of streets

Carl Sandburg:

"Slang is language that takes off its coat, spits on its hands, and goes to work".

Neutral ColloquialSlang

man chap bird

newspaper wrapper fish

policeman bobby pig


Sir, you speak English well. (formal)

Friend, you talk plain and hit the nail right on the head. (colloquial)

Buster, your line is the cat's pajamas./ Doll, you come on with the straight jazz, real cool like. (slang)

Cousin, y'all talk mighty fine. (American Southern dialect)


Paisano, you speak good the English. (ethnic-immigrant dialect)


1. general slang ="interjargon”


= moo, moolah, oof, boot, chuck, hardstuff, lettuce, lolly, sea-coal, green goods, hay, shoestring, ante, bread, ducats, dumps, bean, crap, dough, ochre, rubbish, salad, soap, sugar, iron, balsam, dust, tin, brass, fat, rocks, chips, corn, red, sand, bundle, oil, shells

2. special slang ="social and professional jargon”/ "shop talk”

military jargon

button man

brain bucket

picture gallery

stomach robber


argot = the jargon of any professional criminal group

Translation of slang

“Red Heat”

heat = police

Wanna become a landowner, boy?

He’s ready for the laughing academy.

a make-up exam


slang changes very rapidly

used to be slang in the past:

purport, subject matter, hitch-hiker, sky-scraper, teenager, bus, cab, taxi, pub, phone, photo


c/ vulgarisms

expletives / swear-words / obscene words


1. Lexical -"taboo" words

- bl-words (blooming, blistering/ bleeding)

- "four-letter"

2. Stylistic - derogatory connotations

Читайте також:

  2. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  3. Archaic, obsolete and historic words
  4. B) Syntagmatics and paradigmatics
  5. Combine the following words into sentences.
  6. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
  7. Divergences in the semantic structure of words
  8. English modal verbs having not always modal verb equivalents in Ukrainian.
  9. Free Word-Groups Versus Phraseological Units Versus Words
  10. Identify the period of borrowing of the French, Greek, Russian and German words given in task 6.
  11. International Words
  12. Interrelation of Etymological and Stylistic Characteristics of Words.

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