Ways of conveying the meaning of subjective modality.



through the verb , or through the logical stress: Shall I tell you? - ?(, ?)

expressing warning, threat or resolute demand through the imperative verb form. I shall want your account of how this happened. - , .

In other cases the meaning of shall may coincide with that of the modal verb dare.

Will may coincide with would

Will expressing volition, demand, assurance through the corresponding verb and logical stress. "I will be another kind of president " - " / ."

Will as assurance and promise -

Determination, perseverance or promising threat - future tense.

I will prosecute you myself -

Polite request. When would / will you like to come over? - ?

Supposition - Ukrainian modal verb or by means of the subjunctive mood. This will be the place where they reposed - , , , .

Resistance to an action referring to the present or to the future, which is observed only in English. Help him. The door will not unlock. - , .

Preference choice and other meanings as in the set expressions Id rather / Id sooner - by the subjunctive mood forms and , . Mother said she would much rather watch him fish and not try to fish herself. , , , .

Will, would are used in many set expressions: You d make a saint swear - / .

Should as a modal verb is often used in reference to present and to future.

Obligation, necessity. What do you think he should do?

Regret, sorrow, grief. I shouldn't have said that.

Advice, recommendation, admonition.

Supposition, suggestion. Perhaps I should introduce... - , ... , , ...

Surprise, indignation or pleasure (with the indefinite or perfect infinitive following the verb should) God forbid that I should ever say a good word for you. - .

Reproval, protest, disappointment - , , .


The speaker conveying the event or action mentioned as assumptive or suggestive, as likely or unlikely to take place. That is why this type of modality is referred to as subjective modality.

Modals which have a hypothetical meaning: perhaps, maybe, evidently, scarcely, no possibility , , -, , .

Subjective evaluation by the speaker. Modals: certainly, of course, surely, definitely, indeed, naturally, no doubt, in fact. Surely he is mad - ³ 璿.



  1. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  2. Classification of word meaning
  3. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
  4. Grammatical meaning.
  5. Grammatical meaning.
  6. Lexical meaning and its structure.
  7. Objectively and subjectively conditioned transformations of lexical units in the process of translation.
  8. Read the text about Parliamentary monarchy. Guess the meaning of underlined words.
  9. Referential approach to Meaning
  10. Referential Meaning and its Rendering in Translation
  11. Rendering of stylistic meaning in translation
  12. Stylistic devices based on the meaning of the category of case

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English modal verbs having not always modal verb equivalents in Ukrainian. | Literature used and recommended

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