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Types of verbs.

Types of pronouns.

The pronoun as a part of speech and its classification.

It is a very heterogeneous part of speech because different types of pronouns have quite different features and functions.


type number case examples absolute use
personal (n) + + i, you, he, they -
possessive(a) + - my, his, their + mine, theirs
reflexive(n,part) + - myself -
reciprocal (n) - - each other, one another -
demonstrative (art) + - this, that -
interrogative (n) - - (exc- whom) who, which, what -
negative (n) - + nothing,nobody -
relative (a, conj) - -(exc- whom) who, which what -
quantitative (n,a) - - some, much, few -

At the same time traditional grammar still treats all these types as one part of speech on the basic of two qualities. The first is -meaning, the second is -function. All pronouns have relative type of meaning as all functional words. But the specificity of pronouns is that their meaning is also deictic (даиктический). Deictic words always depend on the situation. And their meaning depends on it. Pronouns fulfill not only syntactic functions as other parts of speech but also one common function- substitution. They can substitute other parts of speech. Pronouns can’t be referred either to notional or functional words absolutely because of their heterogeneous nature. They are called intermediate class of words.


21. Adverb.

General. The adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics which attend or modify an action, state, or quality. It may also intensify a quality or characteristics.

Morphological composition. As vary in their structure. There are simple(after, here, well), derived(occasionally, immediately), compound(sometimes, somewhere), and composite as(a great deal, a little bit).

Morphological characteristics. The only pattern of morphological change for adverbs is the same as for adjectives, the degrees of comparison. The three grades are called positive, comparative, and superlative degrees.

Semantic characteristics. According to their meaning adverbs fall into many groups: place(outside, there); time(long, all day, yesterday); frequency (often, now and then);manner: (well, carefully); degree(thoroughly, very, much, badly, greatly).

Syntactic functions. Adverbs may function as adverbial modifiers of manner, place, time, degree to a finite or non-finite form of the verb(He spoke aloud; as adverbial modifiers to an adjective or another adverb. Usually the modifying adverb is an intensifier(very, rather, awfully, so).


Grammatically the verb is the most complex part of speech, because it has more categories than other parts of speech and it exists both in finite and non-finite forms. Te verb fulfills the central position in the sentence because all other sentence parts are grouped around the predicate and the verb expresses predicativity and modality of the sentence. Verbs can be classified according to many criteria. First of all we divide them according to the type of meaning- notionaland functional verbs.

Functional verbs are divided into auxiliary and link- verbs. Auxiliary verbs are used in analytical forms and for making questions and negotiations. (be, have, do, will, shall, get, become, grow)

Link verbs are used only within a compound nominal predicate (He is a teacher. He is clever. He is here). In this case “is” isn’t a part of predicative it’s link.

In English there are verbs that can be called homonyms because we find them in different group of verbs. (e.g. be, have, do- can be in one situation- auxiliary and in some other- notional ones. Such words are called semi-notional)

Another principle of verb classification connected with combinability. Verbs that can be used without any type of object called subjective- (stand, think). And if some kind of object is obligatory the verbs are called – objective (read, tell). If the verb is used with the direct object- transitive (to read a book)

As for as lexical symantics verbs are divided into :

1) Durative (stative)- to think, rest, hate, like

2) Terminative – brake, create, put

Modal words constitute a peculiar verbal class that is different both from notional and functional words. The meaning they have is neither denotative nor relative. Modality belongs to the lexical sphere, but it’s more general and expresses the attitude of the speaker to the described action. Syntactically, these words are similar to both types as notional verbs they can be predicatives- he can. And as functional they can be used as functional elements in compound verbal predicate.- he can read

Morphological classifications..

I. According to their stem-types all verbs fall into: simple (to go), sound-replacive (food - to feed, blood - to bleed), stress-replacive (import - to im port, transport - to transport, expanded (with the help of suffixes and prefixes): cultivate, justify, overcome, composite (correspond to composite nouns): to blackmail), phrasal: to have a smoke, to give a smile (they always have an ordinary verb as an equivalent). 2.According to the way of forming past tenses and Participle II verbs can be regular and irregular.

B.Lexical-morphological classification is based on the implicit grammatical meanings of the verb. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity verbs fall into transitive and intransitive. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of stativeness/non-stativeness verbs fall into stative and dynamic. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of terminativeness/non-terminativeness verbs fall into terminative and durative. This classification is closely connected with the categories of Aspect and Phase.

C. Syntactic classifications. According to the nature of predication (primary and secondary) all verbs fall into finite and non-finite. According to syntagmatic properties (valency) verbs can be of obligatory and optional valency, and thus they may have some directionality or be devoid of any directionality. In this way, verbs fall into the verbs of directed (to see, to take, etc.) and non-directed action (to arrive, to drizzle, etc.):

D. Functionalclassification. According to their functional significance verbs can be notional (with the full lexical meaning), semi-notional (modal verbs, link-verbs), auxiliaries.



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